WATER POLLUTION EFFECTS State of water Natural Water

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WATER POLLUTION EFFECTS

WATER POLLUTION EFFECTS

State of water • Natural Water has, – Physical attributes ( Temperature, smell, Colour

State of water • Natural Water has, – Physical attributes ( Temperature, smell, Colour ) – Chemical attributes – p. H, DO, ions – Biological attributes – microorganisms Organisms and users will adapt to water with particular physical, chemical and biological attributes – Salty sea – Fresh Water • Water Pollution – Alteration of the water features/attributes to the detriment of its inhabitants and users

State of water cont; Water Quality – The degree of pollution from the point

State of water cont; Water Quality – The degree of pollution from the point of view of organisms living in or using the water. Pollution Sources 1. Point sources • Piped (sewage, oils) • Stormwater drains 2. Non- Point sources • Agricultural runoff • Atmospheric pollution • Seepage from mine/urban areas

What is water pollution ? • "Water pollution" is defined as the addition of

What is water pollution ? • "Water pollution" is defined as the addition of harmful or objectionable material causing an alteration of water quality.

How does water pollution occur? Mankind through socio-economic activities introduce pollutants to the environment.

How does water pollution occur? Mankind through socio-economic activities introduce pollutants to the environment. – “Then the Earth’s waters cycle, carry and spread the pollutants all around the planet. ”

Water Cycle Precipitation Evaporation Evapo-transpiration Discharge treated water Soil moisture Water Supply Soil moisture

Water Cycle Precipitation Evaporation Evapo-transpiration Discharge treated water Soil moisture Water Supply Soil moisture Infiltration Recharge runoff Aquifer Soil moisture Infiltration (Art) Extraction Ocean Return flow Treated water Extraction Salt Water Intrusion Aquifer intrusion Precipitation Evaporation/ET Surface Water Groundwater

Pollution types • Thermal Pollution (Heated factory water or cooler water from another basin)

Pollution types • Thermal Pollution (Heated factory water or cooler water from another basin) – Warmer …less dissolved Oxygen – Cooler …More dissolved Oxygen • Suspended solids (Silts, Clay, living organisms, dead organic Matter). • Dissolved solids (chemicals) • Acid rain water (Nox and sox) Leaching effects • Trace elements (Heavy Metals)

Human activities that contribute to water pollution • • Overgrazing Poor agricultural land management

Human activities that contribute to water pollution • • Overgrazing Poor agricultural land management Removal of riparian vegetation Sewage, industrial, and domestic discharges Construction, Mining Release of gases and aerosols to the atmosphere Mismanagement of reservoirs Accidental spills

Water pollutants (polluting elements) • • • Sewage/waste water; Fertilizers/Pesticides; Alien species Global Warming

Water pollutants (polluting elements) • • • Sewage/waste water; Fertilizers/Pesticides; Alien species Global Warming Atmospheric Deposition; Pathogens; from untreated sewage, storm drains, septic tanks, runoff from farms Petroleum; Radioactive substances; Heat; Siltation/sediments; Salinization- Increased salinization and salt runoff from irrigated farms causes salinization of major rivers. ; • Heavy metals cause unpleasant taste and odour to drinking water; • Suspended particles like sediments • • •

Effects of polluted water on; 1. Effects on Agriculture; -use of wastewater and polluted

Effects of polluted water on; 1. Effects on Agriculture; -use of wastewater and polluted surface and groundwater which contaminate crops and transmit disease to consumers and farm workers; Depositions of deleterious chemicals in soil leading to loss of soil fertility; 2. Effects on Environment/ecosystems; -pungent smell, discolourisation; increased temps; contamination; change the p. H; decreased oxygen; detergents that create a mass of white foam in the river waters; Enrichment of groundwater with salts, nutrients from irrigated lands; eutrophication/algal blooms-what is the effect on recreational activities, water treatment plants/water providers; loss of aesthetic value; Algae clogs our waterways

Effects of polluted water on; 4. Domestic effects; -toxic substances such as lead, mercury,

Effects of polluted water on; 4. Domestic effects; -toxic substances such as lead, mercury, cadmium, and chromium or cyanide, which may affect the use of the receiving water for domestic use or for aquatic life. 5. Effects on industry; boiler scales, Heavy metals cause unpleasant taste and odour to drinking water; Suspended particles cause unpleasant taste & discoloration to drinking water;

Effects of polluted water on; 6. Economy • Unsightly color, reduced clarity, and obnoxious

Effects of polluted water on; 6. Economy • Unsightly color, reduced clarity, and obnoxious odor of the receiving waters also make it unfit for recreation and other productive uses; • Adverse effects of water pollution lead to economic losses in terms of reduced health, reduced agricultural productivity, and low-quality tourism. • There is also economic losses to family income due to the desire for safe bottled water which is more expensive than unbottled water. • When water is polluted, fish and other aquatic resources can perish, which leads to a decline in fisheries production. Erosion from degraded uplands and pollution from silt and sedimentation, as well as untreated sewerage, cause productivity losses in fisheries. Silt and sedimentation are major causes for losses in fishery production. • High levels of turbidity leads to economic losses;

Effects of polluted water on; • Improvement of water quality- Removal of organic matte

Effects of polluted water on; • Improvement of water quality- Removal of organic matte thru aerobic decomposition; chlorination to remove bacteria, suspended solids; precipitation of salts, desalination etc during water treatment is expensive for polluted water; • Increased salinization and salt runoff leading to salinization of major rivers. ; • Heavy metals cause unpleasant taste and odour to drinking water; • Suspended particles cause unpleasant taste & discoloration to drinking water;

Effects of polluted water on; • Hard water with usually high levels of calcium

Effects of polluted water on; • Hard water with usually high levels of calcium and magnesium can cause a build-up of minerals in pipelines/boiler scales and cause erosion and blockage problems. Water softeners and conditioners can be used in the water to reduce limescale but can be expensive.

Effects of polluted water on; 7. Leisure • Swimming pool water can become contaminated

Effects of polluted water on; 7. Leisure • Swimming pool water can become contaminated with a number of different pollutants and may cause changes in water colour and odour, some pollutants may also be harmful to human health. • Discolouration of the swimming pool water could be due to a number of reasons. It may be dirty and cause the water to change a milky colour if the filter is inadequate or blocked. Algae contamination can also cause discolouration, black algae cause black spots to appear in the pool. Other forms of algae contaminate pools when chlorine levels are too low, these often turn the water a green colour. • Chlorine is used in many swimming pools to keep them clean. There are certain substances, such as certain types of detergents and some forms of make-up, that don’t mix well with chlorine. These can cause adverse effects to human health such as skin and throat irritations. • Pond water can also become polluted with different chemicals or microbes. This can make the pond less attractive and can be harmful to aquatic life within the pond. An overgrowth of algae and accumulation of leaf debris are often the main problems with ponds in the home; UV filters are efficient at reducing algae levels in ponds and also remove decaying vegetation. These are useful for long term maintenance of your pond.

Effects of polluted water on; 8. Effects on human health; Increased incidence of tumours,

Effects of polluted water on; 8. Effects on human health; Increased incidence of tumours, ulcers due to nitrate pollution; Increased incidence of skin disorders due to contact with pollutants; Increased incidence of constipation, diarrhea, and infections to intestine; Dangerous effects on growing foetus in pregnant women; Concentration of pollutants due to bioaccumulative pesticides through secondary and tertiary food chains in case of non-vegeterians; Still births, abortions, and birth of deformed children; Blue baby disease caused by methaneglobinema-which results in asphyxia (reduced oxygen supply); Reduced activity of immune system; Loss of memory power and reduced mental sharpness; Water borne diseases like jaundice, hepatitis, gasteroenteritis, will be more prevalent due to water pollution; Reduced bone development and muscular development; Reduced male fertility; Shifts in physiological cycles of human body.

Effects of polluted water on; 9. Effects on animal health; Large scale death of

Effects of polluted water on; 9. Effects on animal health; Large scale death of aquatic and terrestrial animals; Reduced reproduction rate; Increased disease incidences; Imbalances created in secondary foodchains; Accumulation of bioaccumulative and nonbiodegraddable pollutants in animal bodies; Bioaccumulation eg of organochlorine pesticides; Biomagnification; Cause health hazards like impotence, cancerous tumours etc

Major water related diseases 1 2 3 4 Type Water borne (Disease causing vector

Major water related diseases 1 2 3 4 Type Water borne (Disease causing vector carried in water) Water washed (Resulting from lack of water or improper use of water) Water Based (Vector lives in water) Diseases Cholera Typhoid Diarrhoea Dysentery Scabies Eye infections Diarrhoea Cause Drinking contaminated water Eating contaminated food Not washing Lack of enough water for washing Bilharzias Insect vector Malaria related River blindness Effects Dehydration Itchy lashes Sore eyes Blindness Fever from lice diseases Prevention Use clean water for drinking Keep flies away from food Avoid unprotected water sources Increase water availability for washing Improve personal hygiene Worms from the Blood in stool snails enter Pain in stomach through the skin in infected water Mosquitoes bites Fever Semolina worm Aches Blindness Reduce contact with infected snails Control snails Removal potential larvae breeding sites Use mosquito netting Introduce fish in ponds river water