- Slides: 20
� The Greeks were under Persian rule � They revolted and tried to gain freedom � That failed and Persia is angry at them for trying to be free � 9 years later the Persian army attacked the Greeks at Marathon
Battle Armies Winner Effects and why the won Marathon Persians and Greeks (Athenians) Greeks had better weapons even thought they were a small army Thermopylae Persians and Persians Greeks (Athenians and Spartans) Won because of an Athenian Traitor -Burned down Athens Salamis Persians and Athenian Navy Athens Persian ships were too big for the channel Plataea Persian and All Greeks War ended
� The Persians were defeated by the Athenians at the Battle of Marathon. The Athenians were so joyful in victory that they sent a professional runner, Pheidippides, back to Athens.
� Pheidippidies ran about 26 miles to Athens to report the victory. � When he arrived, he cried out, “Nike!” and died from exhaustion. � Nike is the goddess of victory.
� The 1896 Olympic marathon distance of 24. 8 miles was based on the distance run by Pheidippides. � At the 1908 Olympic Games in London, the marathon distance was changed to 26. 2 miles to cover the ground from Windsor Castle to White City Stadium, with the 2. 2 miles added on so the race could finish in front of royal family's viewing box. � This added two miles to the course, and is the origin of the Marathon tradition of shouting "God save the Queen!" as mile post 24 is passed. � After 16 years of discussion, this 26. 2 mile distance was established at the 1924 Olympics in Paris as the official marathon distance.
Sparta was known for its great army and was a rival of Athens. � Their army was known for holding off the Persian army of 250, 000 at Thermopylae for three days with only 7000 soldiers. � This gave the people of Athens time to escape before the Persians invaded there. �
Peloponnesian War l The civil war between 2 Greek city-states.
Pericles’ Plan for Athens l Pericles as Leader Skillful politician, inspiring speaker, respected general l Dominates life in Athens from 461 to 429 B. C. l
Pericles’ Plan for Athens l Athenian Empire l Takes over the Delian League; uses money to strengthen Athenian fleet. l Glorifying l Pericles Athens buys gold, ivory, marble; hires artisans to beautify Athens all with money from the Delian League without the whole league’s consent.
The Peloponnesian League l The other city-states became resentful of Athens’ power over them. l They created their own league led by Sparta: The Peloponnesian League
Athenians and Spartans Go to War l War Begins l 431 B. C. Sparta declares war on Athens—the beginning of the Peloponnesian War. l Peloponnesian l Sparta War has a better army. l Athens has a better navy. l Plague strikes Athens in 430 B. C. , kills many— including Pericles. l Sparta and Athens sign a truce in 421 B. C.
Athenians and Spartans Go to War l Sparta l 415 Gains Victory B. C. Athens renews war, attacks Syracuse on the island of Sicily. l Athens is defeated in 413 B. C. l Athens and its allies surrender to Sparta in 404 B. C.
Battle of Syracuse in Peloponnesian War
Greek Decline l The Greeks began to lose their sense of community and fought with one another. In 338 B. C. Philip II of Macedonia north of Greece (Alexander the Great’s father) conquered Greece.
Geography In History l The ancient Greek city-states never united because the land was very mountainous and hilly making travel difficult. This is one case where geography influenced history.
ALEXANDER THE GREAT
RISE TO KING • Took over the Macedonia thrown at age 20 when his father was murdered • Wanted to grow his empire so he conquered nearby lands • He controlled Greece, Egypt, Babylon, India, Persia
GO ALEX! People liked Alexander because he conquered many lands and because he let people keep their culture
A SAD FAREWELL • Alexander’s men were tired after years of battle and wanted to go home • On his journal home, Alexander became ill • He died at 33 • Before he died, he told his men, the strongest would be king • Therefore: no one was and the empire was divided