Warmup 327 Ecology and our World Ecology The

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Warm-up (3/27)

Warm-up (3/27)

Ecology and our World Ecology The study of interactions between living things and their

Ecology and our World Ecology The study of interactions between living things and their environment Levels in Ecology 1. Individual A single member of a species 2. Population A group of individuals of a species. 3. Community Several species in an area. 4. Ecosystem Living and nonliving things in an area Group of ecosystems 5. Biome 6. Biosphere All the biomes

How do organisms interact? Producers - organisms that produce their own energy, and are

How do organisms interact? Producers - organisms that produce their own energy, and are food for other organisms. They are also called autotrophs Consumers - organisms that have to eat other organisms for their energy They are also called heterotrophs

Consumers come in a wide variety Herbivores - Organisms that eat only plant material.

Consumers come in a wide variety Herbivores - Organisms that eat only plant material. Carnivores - Organisms that eat only other animals. Omnivores - Organisms that eat both plant and animal. Detrivores - Organisms that eat “dead matter” Decomposers - Organisms that break down organic matter

Who eats who? Food Chain - a series of steps showing which organisms eat

Who eats who? Food Chain - a series of steps showing which organisms eat which. (transfer energy) Food Web - a chart linking all food webs in a particular area

Feeding Relationships • A food chain shows a simple feeding relationship. Sun → •

Feeding Relationships • A food chain shows a simple feeding relationship. Sun → • All food chains start with the sun

Feeding Relationships • A food chain shows a simple feeding relationship. Sun → grass

Feeding Relationships • A food chain shows a simple feeding relationship. Sun → grass →

Feeding Relationships • A food chain shows a simple feeding relationship. Sun → grass

Feeding Relationships • A food chain shows a simple feeding relationship. Sun → grass → rabbit →

Feeding Relationships • A food chain shows a simple feeding relationship. Sun → grass

Feeding Relationships • A food chain shows a simple feeding relationship. Sun → grass → rabbit → fox

All food chains start with ENERGY from the sun

All food chains start with ENERGY from the sun

carbon dioxide from the air water from the roots food transported to the rest

carbon dioxide from the air water from the roots food transported to the rest of the plant energy from sunlight (or light)

Photosynthesis carbon dioxide from the air water from the roots food transported to the

Photosynthesis carbon dioxide from the air water from the roots food transported to the rest of the plant energy from sunlight (or light)

Because plants produce their own food, they are called ‘Producers’

Because plants produce their own food, they are called ‘Producers’

The energy is then passed on to animals when they eat the plant.

The energy is then passed on to animals when they eat the plant.

Animals of all shapes…

Animals of all shapes…

…and sizes!

…and sizes!

Because these animals are the first to take the food energy from the plants,

Because these animals are the first to take the food energy from the plants, They are called primary consumers

Some of these primary consumers have predators. Other animals that feed on them

Some of these primary consumers have predators. Other animals that feed on them

Aphids are eaten by….

Aphids are eaten by….

Ladybugs

Ladybugs

Animals that eat primary consumers are called secondary consumers

Animals that eat primary consumers are called secondary consumers

 • So far this is a straightforward food chain • Sun → leaves

• So far this is a straightforward food chain • Sun → leaves → aphid → ladybugs But in reality it is more complicated than that

This bird eats ladybugs and aphids

This bird eats ladybugs and aphids

This bird eats smaller birds, mice, and rabbits

This bird eats smaller birds, mice, and rabbits

Mice and rabbits have other predators

Mice and rabbits have other predators

What will eat the frog? What do you think the frog eats?

What will eat the frog? What do you think the frog eats?

Sometimes it’s not entirely clear who eats who!

Sometimes it’s not entirely clear who eats who!

We can show what goes on with the help of a Food Web

We can show what goes on with the help of a Food Web

What would happen if a disease killed off many of the hawks?

What would happen if a disease killed off many of the hawks?

There will be nothing to eat the snakes, so their numbers will increase.

There will be nothing to eat the snakes, so their numbers will increase.

All the frogs get eaten

All the frogs get eaten

No frogs. More crickets

No frogs. More crickets

Most of the cattail gets eaten by the crickets

Most of the cattail gets eaten by the crickets

Now the crickets don’t have enough food so their numbers go down

Now the crickets don’t have enough food so their numbers go down

. . and so on. Numbers of each species have an effect on the

. . and so on. Numbers of each species have an effect on the numbers of the other species in the web.

Handout is due at the beginning of class tomorrow

Handout is due at the beginning of class tomorrow

Warm-up (3/28) ■ What is the difference between a food web and a food

Warm-up (3/28) ■ What is the difference between a food web and a food chain?

Successiona series of changes in a community in which new populations of organisms gradually

Successiona series of changes in a community in which new populations of organisms gradually replace existing ones

Primary successioncolonization of new sites by communities of organisms – takes place on bare

Primary successioncolonization of new sites by communities of organisms – takes place on bare rock

Primary succession. New bare rock comes from 2 sources: 1. volcanic lava flow cools

Primary succession. New bare rock comes from 2 sources: 1. volcanic lava flow cools and forms rock

Primary succession. New bare rock comes from 2 sources: 2. Glaciers retreat and expose

Primary succession. New bare rock comes from 2 sources: 2. Glaciers retreat and expose rock

Pioneer organismsthe first organisms to colonize a new site Ex: lichens are the first

Pioneer organismsthe first organisms to colonize a new site Ex: lichens are the first to colonize lava rocks

Primary Succession. Rock

Primary Succession. Rock

Climax communitya stable, mature community that undergoes little or no succession

Climax communitya stable, mature community that undergoes little or no succession

Climax community. Ex: In most of Virginia, the climax community would be a deciduous

Climax community. Ex: In most of Virginia, the climax community would be a deciduous oak–hickory forest

Primary succession-

Primary succession-

Secondary successionsequence of community changes that takes place when a community is disrupted by

Secondary successionsequence of community changes that takes place when a community is disrupted by natural disaster or human actions – takes place on existing soil

Secondary succession. Ex: A fire levels portions of a forest

Secondary succession. Ex: A fire levels portions of a forest

Secondary succession. Ex: A farmer plows his field

Secondary succession. Ex: A farmer plows his field

Secondary succession-

Secondary succession-

Secondary succession-

Secondary succession-

Pond Succession

Pond Succession

Pond Succession

Pond Succession