WARM UP Look over the images below and

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WARM UP: Look over the images below and create a list of similarities and

WARM UP: Look over the images below and create a list of similarities and differences that you find. YOU MUST HAVE ATLEAST THREE OF EACH.

WARM UP: SIMILARITIES DIFFERENCES

WARM UP: SIMILARITIES DIFFERENCES

DNA vs. RNA STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

DNA vs. RNA STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID Nucleus Chromosomes Genes Portions of DNA are called genes. DNA is tightly

DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID Nucleus Chromosomes Genes Portions of DNA are called genes. DNA is tightly wound into chromosomes and located in the nucleus of cells. DNA cannot leave the nucleus. Segments of DNA is DOUBLE STRANDED(2 sides)

RIBONUCLEIC ACID RNA is SINGLE STRANDED and does not have to stay in the

RIBONUCLEIC ACID RNA is SINGLE STRANDED and does not have to stay in the nucleus! RNA is not found in chromosomes because it does not carry the genetic code, however it can read the DNA code and take the information out of the nucleus. RNA’s main job is to build proteins!

DNA STRUCTURE The building blocks of DNA are called Nucleotides. One nucleotide is made

DNA STRUCTURE The building blocks of DNA are called Nucleotides. One nucleotide is made of 3 important things: 1. 5 -Carbon Sugar Deoxyribose 2. Phosphate 3. Nitrogen base there are 4 nitrogen bases in DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine that pair together) A T C G

RNA STRUCTURE The building blocks of RNA are Nucleotides, just like DNA. A Nucleotide

RNA STRUCTURE The building blocks of RNA are Nucleotides, just like DNA. A Nucleotide in RNA is still made of 3 important things: 1. 6 -Carbon Sugar - Ribose (instead of Deoxyribose) 2. Phosphate 3. Nitrogen base there are 4 nitrogen bases in RNA, A, G, C, and U that pair together) A U C G

DNA RNA

DNA RNA

Both DNA and RNA: a. are single stranded b. contain the same four nitrogenous

Both DNA and RNA: a. are single stranded b. contain the same four nitrogenous bases c. have the same five carbon sugars d. contain phosphate groups

THREE MAIN TYPES OF RNA 1. Messenger RNA (m. RNA) - Carries copies of

THREE MAIN TYPES OF RNA 1. Messenger RNA (m. RNA) - Carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell (serve as “messenger”)

THREE MAIN TYPES OF RNA 2. Ribosomal RNA (r. RNA) – Makes up the

THREE MAIN TYPES OF RNA 2. Ribosomal RNA (r. RNA) – Makes up the major part of ribosomes, which is where proteins are made. Ribosomal RNA

THREE MAIN TYPES OF RNA 3. Transfer RNA (t. RNA) - Transfers amino acids

THREE MAIN TYPES OF RNA 3. Transfer RNA (t. RNA) - Transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis

PROTEINS Proteins are made up of a chain of amino acids. Proteins are enzymes,

PROTEINS Proteins are made up of a chain of amino acids. Proteins are enzymes, which catalyze and regulate chemical reactions.

2 STEPS TO MAKE A PROTEIN 1. Transcription 2. DNA → RNA Translation RNA

2 STEPS TO MAKE A PROTEIN 1. Transcription 2. DNA → RNA Translation RNA → Protein (Chain of amino acids)

 When transcription needs to take place, DNA must provide the code in order

When transcription needs to take place, DNA must provide the code in order to create an m. RNA strand. m. RNA will be able to leave the nucleus and now it has the code transcribed inside it’s base pairs! Practice: DNA strand: TTA ACG GGT CTA Matching DNA strand: AAT TGC CCA GAT m. RNA: UUA ACG GGU CUA

A segment of DNA has one strand with the following sequence of bases: AGC

A segment of DNA has one strand with the following sequence of bases: AGC GCA TAG CAA The complimentary strand of RNA would be a. UCG b. TCG c. AGC d. CTA CGU CGT GCA TAC AUC ATC UAG GCT GUU GTT CAA ACC

MINI QUIZ with answers

MINI QUIZ with answers

6 A BO 1.

6 A BO 1.

6 A BIO 2. 11/06

6 A BIO 2. 11/06

6 A BIO 10/06 3.

6 A BIO 10/06 3.

6 A BIO 10 -04 4. TTAGCG AATCGC

6 A BIO 10 -04 4. TTAGCG AATCGC

6 B BIO 5.

6 B BIO 5.

6 A BIO 11/04 6.

6 A BIO 11/04 6.

6 B BIO D 11/06 7. Which of the following must take place before

6 B BIO D 11/06 7. Which of the following must take place before m. RNA can be formed from the DNA strand inside the nucleus?

6 A BIO 8. Which of the following statements is true? A. The nitrogen

6 A BIO 8. Which of the following statements is true? A. The nitrogen bases that make up the DNA nucleotides of plants are much different than the bases found in animals. B. The more closely related two organisms are, the more alike the order of their DNA nucleotides will be. C. Changes in genes do not effect any of the traits in an individual. D. A given sequence of bases can result in a number of different amino acids.

MINI QUIZ EXIT TICKET

MINI QUIZ EXIT TICKET

6 A BO 1.

6 A BO 1.

6 A BIO 2. 11/06

6 A BIO 2. 11/06

6 A BIO 10/06 3.

6 A BIO 10/06 3.

6 A BIO 10 -04 4.

6 A BIO 10 -04 4.

6 B BIO 5.

6 B BIO 5.

6 A BIO 11/04 6.

6 A BIO 11/04 6.

6 B BIO D 11/06 7. Which of the following must take place before

6 B BIO D 11/06 7. Which of the following must take place before m. RNA can be formed from the DNA strand inside the nucleus?

6 A BIO 8. Which of the following statements is true? A. The nitrogen

6 A BIO 8. Which of the following statements is true? A. The nitrogen bases that make up the DNA nucleotides of plants are much different than the bases found in animals. B. The more closely related two organisms are, the more alike the order of their DNA nucleotides will be. C. Changes in genes do not effect any of the traits in an individual. D. A given sequence of bases can result in a number of different amino acids.