- Slides: 16
W. W. I: A Global Conflict
Global Conflict • W. W. I was much more than a European conflict. • Australia and Japan entered the war on the Allies side. • Ottoman Turks and Bulgaria allied themselves with the Central Powers. • Gallipoli Campaign – Britain’s attempt to attack the Turks at Gallipoli in 1915. • Trying to establish a supply line to Russia – Not successful • Battles in Africa and Asia – Germany’s colonial possessions came under assault by French and British but with the help of India, South Africa, Senegal, Egypt, Algeria, and Indochina.
German War Tactics • Germany seeks to control Atlantic Ocean to stop supplies to Britain. • German Blockade • Germany announced it would begin unrestricted submarine warfare -- sinking ships without warning in the waters around Britain. • Sinking of the Lusitania (British Ship) killing 1, 198 people including 128 Americans. • U. S. warned Germany after the sinking • Germany continued to this type of warfare.
Zimmerman Telegram • In 1917, Britain intercepted a telegram from Germany’s foreign secretary, Arthur Zimmerman, to the German ambassador in Mexico. The message said that Germany would help Mexico “re-conquer” the land it lost to the U. S. if Mexico would ally itself with Germany. • When the Zimmerman Note was made public, Americans called for War against Germany. • U. S. declares war against Germany in April 1917, joining Allies.
Total War • The Great War, as the conflict came to be known, affected everyone. Not only soldiers but civilians as well. • World War I becomes total war—nations devote all resources to war • Governments take control of economy to produce war goods. • Gov’ts turn to rationing—limiting the amount of goods people can buy. • Propaganda—one-sided information to build morale, support for war
Women and the War • At home, thousands of women filled jobs previously held by men. • Women built tanks, plowed fields, paved streets and ran hospitals. • They also kept troops supplied with food, clothing, and weapons. • Many women also experience the war by working as nurses.
The End is Near • The losses suffered during the war for Russia took away from the Russian people’s support for their Czar. • Civil unrest in Russia forces czar Nicholas to step down. • Lack of food and fuel brought the czar’s government to the brink of collapse. • Communists take control of Russia’s government. • Russia signs the treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in March 1918, which ends the fighting between them.
Victory in Sight • With Russia gone, Germany moves most forces to Western Front • Germans mounted one final massive attack on the allies in France. • More than 6, 000 German cannons opened the offensive with the largest artillery attack of the entire war. • German forces crushed everything in their path and victory was within reach. • By this time, the German military had weakened and sensing this, the allies launched a counterattack. • France with the help of nearly 140, 000 fresh troops Americans force Germans to retreat. • In July 1918, the Allies and Germans clashed again and soon the Central powers began to crumble. • Allies win war • Armistice is signed in November 1918 (ending the fighting).
Legacy of the War • War takes heavy toll: 8. 5 million soldiers dead, 21 million wounded. • War devastates European economies and drains national treasuries. • Many acres of land homes, villages, towns are destroyed • Survivors suffer disillusionment and despair; reflected in the arts and literature. • Peace agreement, which was sought to bring a new sense of security and peace, prompted mainly anger and resentment.