- Slides: 32
Vowels and Diphthongs
The key to improving pronunciation and articulation in English is the vowels. Mastering the correct vowel sounds and placement of stress on the correct syllable will dramatically improve one’s overall pronunciation. In this chapter we will cover the five distinct vowel categorizations: Front, Back, Mid vowels, Vowel Diphthongs and Consonant diphthongs.
Front vowels: [i] as in see, [I] as in sit, [e] as in ate, [ε] as in bet, and [æ] as in bat Mid-Vowels: [Λ] as in up, [ə] as in banana, [ɝ] as in early, and [ɚ] as in father Back vowels: [ʊ] as in book, [u] as in too, [o] as in rope, [ɔ] as in awful, and [ɑ] as in calm Diphthongs: [ɑɪ] as in ice, [ɑ ʊ] as in how, [ɔɪ] as in coin, [eɪ] as in raid, and [o ʊ] as in robe [ɚ] Diphthongs: [ɪ ɚ] as in gear, [ε ɚ] as in pair, [ɑ ɚ] as in car, [ʊ ɚ] as in poor, and [ɔ ɚ] as in pore
[i], [I], [e], [ε], [æ] https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=2 b CM 9 Rn. DBZw
Sample sentence: She could see the reaping machines in the field. Spellings: e as in he ea as in eat eo as in people ey as in key i as in marine ee as in see ie as in field ei as in receipt is as in debris ae as in Caeser ay as in quay oe as Phoenix y as in easy
1. 2. 3. 4. Open your mouth very slightly. Spread your lips just a little and pull the corners back slightly, as though you were going to smile. Your teeth should be almost touching. Touch the back molars with the sides of the back of the tongue. Put the tip of the tongue behind the lower teeth and arch the tongue up and forward. Continue to touch the rear upper teeth. Keep the soft palate tensed so that there’s no nasal emission of air. Produce voice.
BEGINNING eat evening each equal Eden eagle ego Egypt MIDDLE mean need Pete team increase keep believe receive END be knee pea Handy gooey ski tea fee
Teach me how to heat the tea. Each week we had a new teacher. Sleet came from the eastern sky like drops of steel. The cheese spread made a greasy meal.
Sample sentence: The rich syrup spilled on the English book. Spellings: i as in sit e as in English ui as in build y as in syrup u as in busy ee as in been o as in women ei as in forfeit ie as in sieve
1. 2. 3. Open your mouth very slightly. Your upper and lower teeth should be closed together, but not quite as close as for [i]. Spread your lips slightly, but don’t smile for this vowel. Touch the back sides of your tongue to the upper molars. Place the tip behind the lower front teeth. The back of the tongue will be slightly lower than it was for [i]. Produce voice.
BEGINNING it igloo itch is ingenious invent Ignite into MIDDLE big dinner committee knit king flinch written printing END (Y) candy baby honey rainy shiny foamy busy money
ear hear fear clear appear cheers weird beard career tear
Many a tiny baby likes a bit of honey. Rags can ignite if left under a sink. I’m itching from sitting in poison ivy. Is he too ill to pitch this spring?
[i] eat [ɪ ] it meat mitt deep dip cheek chick cheap chip
Sample: The lady said the train was delayed eight hours. Spellings: a as in ate ea as in break ai as in train au as in gauge ey as in prey ei as in eight ay as in delay ee as in matinee et as in sachet
1. 2. Lower your tongue to a point just a bit lower than the position for [I]. Open your mouth slightly. Only the rear of your tongue should touch the upper back teeth, and the tip should be behind the lower front teeth. Produce voice. As you do, pull the corners of your lips back very slightly.
[e] [eɪ] mate maid state stayed face faze trait trade
BEGINNING able END gray MIDDLE label angel pray place aim weigh scrape acre stay relation ache matinee chaotic
We’ll be able to meet you at the train by eight. It would be great to take the day off. They attacked the ape on the Empire State Building. Aim the bug spray away from your face.
Sample: I didn’t use my head when I made a bet with my friend. Spellings: e as in bet eo as in leopard ea as in head ae as in aesthetic ei as in heifer a as in any u as in burial ie as in friend ai as in again
1. 2. 3. Open your mouth slightly wider than for [e]. The very back of the tongue is touching the upper molars, and the tip is behind the lower front teeth. Produce voice.
BEGINNING extra MIDDLE gentle END care engine ledge spare exit heaven pair echo said dare elbow energy chair
I need every bit of extra energy I can get. I sent the rent on Wednesday. The square room was carefully fitted with flared chair rails. Be careful where the bare carpet on the stairs has begun to tear.
[ɛ] pen [ɪ] pin set sit head hit bet bit well will
[ɛ] let [e] late pen pain wet wait scent saint bet bait
Sample: A flat tire is no laughing matter. Spellings: a as in pat ai as in plaid au as in laugh
1. 2. 3. Drop your lower jaw noticeably from the position for [ɛ]. Place your tongue tip behind the lower front teeth. Flatten the entire tongue slightly, and raise the middle and back slightly. Produce voice. Make sure to keep the soft palate energized to prevent nasal emission of air.
BEGINNING MIDDLE actor antler ham grass anchor angry have pants attic ask band mask add ankle ranch bath atom amplify fact class
Can I have a hand with this anchor? Jack bought a canned ham. They were stranded on the grass strip after the crash. He gets angry when we ask too many questions in class.
[ɛ] bet [æ] bat set sat left laughed pest past end and
Provide 2 sample words for the following IPA sounds: [i] [ I] [e] [ε] [æ] Be prepared to share aloud one word for each sound.
We will continue Chapter 9: Back Vowels