- Slides: 12
Von Thunen’s Model Johann Heinrich Von Thünen 1783 -1850
Von Thunen’s Model of Agricultural Land Use ● The First Location Theory ● A concentric (circular) model
Major Concepts: ● Distance from the city ● Preservation of food ● Amount of Space needed to farm
1. Dairying and gardening of fruits and vegetables would be closer to the urban market (1 st ring) 2. Timber and firewood for fuel and building materials would be in 2 nd ring 3. Mixed farming, commercial grain and orchards would be in 3 rd ring 4. Extensive Cattle Ranching would be located farther away in 4 th ring
Von Thunen’s Model has 6 assumptions 1. The city is located centrally within an "Isolated State. " 2. The Isolated State is surrounded by wilderness. 3. The land is completely flat and has no rivers or mountains. 4. Soil quality and climate are consistent. 5. Farmers in the Isolated State transport their own goods to market via oxcart, acro land, directly to the central city. 6. Farmers behave rationally to maximize profits
Land Rent ● Land rent or value willdecreaseas one gets farther away from central markets (the middle of the circle model) ● Rent is highest in the closest proximity to urban markets. ○ Thus, agricultural products that have intensive land use , have high transportation costs and were ingreat demand would be locatedcloseto urban markets ● Farmers must consider the types of animals and crops to grow by evaluating the location of the market they are targeting in order to obtain the largest profit.
Von Thunen’s Model of Agricultural Land Use It’s actually a mathematical formula: R=Y(p−c)−YFm R = land rent; Y = yield per unit of land; c = production expenses per unit of commodity; p = market price per unit of commodity; F = freight rate (per agricultural unit, per mile); m = distance to market. Thünen's model of agricultural land was created before industrialization,
WHY? ● Some products spoil more quickly, need more sensitive transportation, or generate higher prices at market ● These products mean the farmer can afford to pay higher land rent
Von Thünen’s Isolated State Model 2 factors to consider: land value and transportation costs • Black dot-market, in the center of the territory • White-dairy/vegetables, close to the city, spoil if transported for too long (no refrigeration yet!) -Intensive agriculture, high inputs, high labor and land prices offset by high market value or high yield goods • Green-forests were nearer the city, needed for fuel/ building materials, heavy/difficult to transport, needed regularly for heating Image: https: //commons. wikimedia. org/wiki/File: Von_Thünen_circles_city. svg
Von Thünen’s Isolated State Model • Yellow-grain farming, crop does not spoil, can be transported farther, large grain fields needed • Red-ranching, larger amount of land needed for grazing • Yellow/Red - extensive agriculture, vast lands needed for grazing increases need for cheaper land • Land farthest from market is cheapest • Dark Green-wilderness separating states, too far to be viable for that market Farmers in an “isolated state” balance the land costs and transportation costs to maximize profits and marketability of their products
Strengths Von Thunen’s Model Today ● Still relevant in less developed Weakness countries where development of ● The notion of the circles doesn’t app transportation and preservation of to the real world food is much less than in rich countries ● Doesn’t allow for things like roads or railroads to transport goods ● Also applicable in that it emphasizes ● Doesn’t take into account refrigerate land near to cities being more transport that allows for perishables to travel long distances expensive and therefore cannot be used for things that require large amounts of land that don’t bring in a large amount of return on profit (example: raising cattle)
Von Thunen’s Model Won’t Always Look the Same. . .