Visit by Representatives of Norwegian Municipalities 11 th

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Visit by Representatives of Norwegian Municipalities 11 th September 2008 Low Carbon Strategies: Experience

Visit by Representatives of Norwegian Municipalities 11 th September 2008 Low Carbon Strategies: Experience of the University of East Anglia Recipient of James Watt Gold Medal 5 th October 2007 CRed Carbon Reduction N. K. Tovey (杜�� ) M. A, Ph. D, CEng, MICE, CEnv Н. К. Тови М. А. , д-р технических наук Energy Science Director CRed Project HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation 1

Original buildings Teaching wall Library Student residences

Original buildings Teaching wall Library Student residences

Nelson Court Constable Terrace

Nelson Court Constable Terrace

Low Energy Educational Buildings Medical School Phase 2 ZICER Elizabeth Fry Building Nursing and

Low Energy Educational Buildings Medical School Phase 2 ZICER Elizabeth Fry Building Nursing and Midwifery School Medical School

The Elizabeth Fry Building 1994 Cost ~6% more but has heating requirement ~25% of

The Elizabeth Fry Building 1994 Cost ~6% more but has heating requirement ~25% of average building at time. Building Regulations have been updated: 1994, 2002, 2006, but building outperforms all of these. Runs on a single domestic sized central heating boiler. 5 5

Conservation: management improvements – User Satisfaction thermal comfort +28% air quality +36% lighting +25%

Conservation: management improvements – User Satisfaction thermal comfort +28% air quality +36% lighting +25% noise +26% A Low Energy Building is also a better place to work in Careful Monitoring and Analysis can reduce energy consumption. 6

ZICER Building Low Energy Building of the Year Award 2005 awarded by the Carbon

ZICER Building Low Energy Building of the Year Award 2005 awarded by the Carbon Trust. Heating Energy consumption as new in 2003 was reduced by further 50% by careful record keeping, management techniques and an adaptive approach to control. Incorporates 34 k. W of Solar Panels on top floor 7

The ground floor open plan office The first floor cellular offices 8

The ground floor open plan office The first floor cellular offices 8

Operation of Main Building Mechanically ventilated using hollow core slabs as air supply ducts.

Operation of Main Building Mechanically ventilated using hollow core slabs as air supply ducts. Regenerative heat exchanger Incoming air into the AHU

Operation of Main Building Filter Heater Air passes through hollow cores in the ceiling

Operation of Main Building Filter Heater Air passes through hollow cores in the ceiling slabs Air enters the internal occupied space

Operation of Main Building Recovers 87% of Ventilation Heat Requirement. Space for future chilling

Operation of Main Building Recovers 87% of Ventilation Heat Requirement. Space for future chilling Out of the building Return air passes through the heat exchanger Return stale air is extracted

Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat

Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures. Warm air Winter Day Warm air Heat is transferred to the air before entering the room Slabs store heat from appliances and body heat Air Temperature is same as building fabric leading to a more pleasant working environment

Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat

Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures. Cool air Winter Night Cool air Heat is transferred to the air before entering the room Slabs also radiate heat back into room In late afternoon heating is turned off.

Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat

Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures. Cold air Summer night Cold air Draws out the heat accumulated during the day Cools the slabs to act as a cool store the following day night ventilation/ free cooling

Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat

Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures. Warm air Summer day Warm air Slabs pre-cool the air before entering the occupied space concrete absorbs and stores heat less/no need for airconditioning

Good Management has reduced Energy Requirements 800 350 Space Heating Consumption reduced by 57%

Good Management has reduced Energy Requirements 800 350 Space Heating Consumption reduced by 57%

Life Cycle Energy Requirements of ZICER as built compared to other heating/cooling strategies 54%

Life Cycle Energy Requirements of ZICER as built compared to other heating/cooling strategies 54% Naturally Ventilated 221508 GJ 28% 51% Air Conditioned 384967 GJ 34% As Built 209441 GJ Materials Production Materials Transport On site construction energy Workforce Transport Intrinsic Heating / Cooling energy Functional Energy Refurbishment Energy Demolition Energy 29% 61% 17

ZICER Building Photo shows only part of top Floor • • Top floor is

ZICER Building Photo shows only part of top Floor • • Top floor is an exhibition area – also to promote PV Windows are semi transparent Mono-crystalline PV on roof ~ 27 k. W in 10 arrays 18 Poly- crystalline on façade ~ 6/7 k. W in 3 arrays

Arrangement of Cells on Facade Individual cells are connected horizontally As shadow covers one

Arrangement of Cells on Facade Individual cells are connected horizontally As shadow covers one column all cells are inactive If individual cells are connected vertically, only those cells actually in shadow are affected. 19

Use of PV generated energy Peak output is 34 k. W Sometimes electricity is

Use of PV generated energy Peak output is 34 k. W Sometimes electricity is exported Inverters are only 91% efficient Most use is for computers DC power packs are inefficient typically less than 60% efficient Need an integrated approach 20

Conversion efficiency improvements – Building Scale CHP 3% Radiation Losses 11% 61% Flue Losses

Conversion efficiency improvements – Building Scale CHP 3% Radiation Losses 11% 61% Flue Losses 36% GAS Engine efficient Generator 36% Electricity 21

Conversion efficiency improvements – Building Scale CHP 3% Radiation Losses 11% Flue Losses Exhaust

Conversion efficiency improvements – Building Scale CHP 3% Radiation Losses 11% Flue Losses Exhaust Heat Exchanger Engine heat Exchanger 86% GAS efficient Localised generation makes use of waste heat. Reduces conversion losses significantly Generator 36% Electricity 50% Heat 22

UEA’s Combined Heat and Power 3 units each generating up to 1. 0 MW

UEA’s Combined Heat and Power 3 units each generating up to 1. 0 MW electricity and 1. 4 MW heat

Conversion efficiency improvements Before installation 1997/98 MWh electricity gas oil 19895 35148 33 Total

Conversion efficiency improvements Before installation 1997/98 MWh electricity gas oil 19895 35148 33 Total Emission factor kg/k. Wh 0. 46 0. 186 0. 277 Carbon dioxide Tonnes 9152 6538 9 Electricity After installation 1999/ Total CHP export 2000 site generation MWh 20437 15630 977 Emission kg/k. Wh -0. 46 factor CO 2 Tonnes -449 15699 Heat import boilers CHP oil total 5783 14510 28263 923 0. 46 0. 186 0. 277 2660 2699 5257 256 10422 This represents a 33% saving in carbon dioxide 24

Conversion efficiency improvements Load Factor of CHP Plant at UEA Demand for Heat is

Conversion efficiency improvements Load Factor of CHP Plant at UEA Demand for Heat is low in summer: plant cannot be used effectively More electricity could be generated in summer 25

Conversion Efficiency Improvements Normal Chilling Heat rejected High Temperature High Pressure Compressor Condenser Throttle

Conversion Efficiency Improvements Normal Chilling Heat rejected High Temperature High Pressure Compressor Condenser Throttle Valve Evaporator Heat extracted for cooling Low Temperature Low Pressure 26

Conversion Efficiency Improvements Adsorption Chilling Heat rejected Heat from external source High Temperature High

Conversion Efficiency Improvements Adsorption Chilling Heat rejected Heat from external source High Temperature High Pressure Desorber Heat Exchanger Condenser Throttle Valve W~0 Evaporator Absorber Heat extracted for cooling Low Temperature Low Pressure 27

A 1 MW Adsorption chiller • Adsorption Heat pump uses Waste Heat from CHP

A 1 MW Adsorption chiller • Adsorption Heat pump uses Waste Heat from CHP • • Will provide most of chilling requirements in summer Will reduce electricity demand in summer Will increase electricity generated locally Save 500 – 700 tonnes Carbon Dioxide annually 28

The Future: Advanced Gasifier Biomass CHP Plant UEA has grown by over 40% since

The Future: Advanced Gasifier Biomass CHP Plant UEA has grown by over 40% since 2000 and energy demand is increasing. • New Biomass Plant will provide an extra 1. 4 MWe , and 2 MWth • Will produce gas from waste wood which is then used as fuel for CHP plant • Under 7 year payback • Local wood fuel from waste wood and local sustainable sources • Will reduce Carbon Emissions of UEA by a further 35%

Results of the “Big Switch-Off” Target Day With a concerted effort savings of 25%

Results of the “Big Switch-Off” Target Day With a concerted effort savings of 25% or more are possible How can these be translated into long term savings? 31

On average each person in UK causes the emission of over 9 tonnes of

On average each person in UK causes the emission of over 9 tonnes of CO 2 each year. In Norway 8 tonnes person 5 hot air balloons person per year. In the developing world, the average is under 1 balloon person How many people know what 9 tonnes of CO 2 looks like? 10 gms of carbon dioxide has an equivalent volume of 1 party balloon. At Gao’an No 1 Primary School in Xuhui District, Shanghai School children at the Al Fatah University, Tripoli, Libya "Nobody made a greater mistake than he who did nothing because he thought he could do only a little. " Edmund Burke (1727 – 1797) 32

A Pathway to a Low Carbon Future for business 1. Awareness 2. Management 5.

A Pathway to a Low Carbon Future for business 1. Awareness 2. Management 5. Offsetting Green Tariffs 4. Renewable Energy 3. Technical Measures 33

Sharing the Expertise of the University World’s First MBA in Strategic Carbon Management First

Sharing the Expertise of the University World’s First MBA in Strategic Carbon Management First cohort January 2008 A partnership between The Norwich Business School and the 5** School of Environmental Sciences 34

Conclusions • Buildings built to low energy standards have cost ~ 5% more, but

Conclusions • Buildings built to low energy standards have cost ~ 5% more, but savings have recouped extra costs in around 5 years. • Ventilation heat requirements can be large and efficient heat recovery is important. • Effective adaptive energy management can reduce heating energy requirements in a low energy building by 50% or more. • Photovoltaic cells need to take account of intended use of electricity use in building to get the optimum value. • Building scale CHP can reduce carbon emissions significantly • Adsorption chilling should be included to ensure optimum utilisation of CHP plant. • Promoting Awareness can result in up to 25% savings • The Future for UEA: Biomass CHP Wind Turbines? "If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading. " Lao Tzu (604 -531 BC) Chinese Artist and Taoist philosopher 35