VISION n n 1 the dimension of visual

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VISION n n 1) ____: the dimension of visual experience specified by color names

VISION n n 1) ____: the dimension of visual experience specified by color names The sun produces white light and, sometimes moisture in the air act like a prism (RAINBOW)

VISION n n 2) _________: lightness or luminance; the dimension of visual experience related

VISION n n 2) _________: lightness or luminance; the dimension of visual experience related to the amount of light emitted from or reflected by an object The more light an object reflects, the brighter it appears • Yellows appear brighter than reds and blues when their reflective qualities are identical

BRIGHTNESS ILLUSION

BRIGHTNESS ILLUSION

VISION n 3) SATURATION: the dimension of visual experience related to the complexity of

VISION n 3) SATURATION: the dimension of visual experience related to the complexity of light AKA ________ The more saturated, the more PURE WHITE light = NO SATURATION

n ______: -Part of the brain - Acts as a movie screen to invert

n ______: -Part of the brain - Acts as a movie screen to invert images

Functions of the Eye n n CORNEA –Protects the eye LENS - Focuses light

Functions of the Eye n n CORNEA –Protects the eye LENS - Focuses light from objects that are close by or far away IRIS - Gives your eyes their color PUPIL - Dilates and contracts to control levels of light

Retinal Receptors n n There are 2 kinds of visual receptors located in your

Retinal Receptors n n There are 2 kinds of visual receptors located in your retina 1) _____: Allow us to see color • THINK: CONES = COLOR n 2) _____: Allow us to see at night and to use peripheral vision but are NOT sensitive to color

Rods vs. Cones RODS CONES How many? 120 -125 million 7 -8 million Where

Rods vs. Cones RODS CONES How many? 120 -125 million 7 -8 million Where most concentrated? Periphery of retina Retinal center (_____) How sensitive? High sensitivity Low sensitivity _______ Sensitive to color?

The Retina n A magnified image of cones and rods in the retina of

The Retina n A magnified image of cones and rods in the retina of a human eye

Are You Afraid of the Dark? n n n __________: the process by which

Are You Afraid of the Dark? n n n __________: the process by which visual receptors become maximally sensitive to dim light Cones adapt quickly (10 minutes or so) Rods adapt slowly but are more sensitive

BEAR GRYLLS

BEAR GRYLLS

How Do We See Colors? n n n There are 2 processes which account

How Do We See Colors? n n n There are 2 processes which account for our ability to see color 1) __________ AKA: Young Helmholtz Theory; • Occurs in the retina

TRICHROMATIC THEORY n There are 3 basic types of cones in the retina •

TRICHROMATIC THEORY n There are 3 basic types of cones in the retina • One responds to to to the the color ________ • All other colors are formed from a combination of these three

COLOR BLIND OR COLOR DEFICIENT? n Is it possible to be completely color blind?

COLOR BLIND OR COLOR DEFICIENT? n Is it possible to be completely color blind? _____, but it is ____ • Cones in the retina are absent or malfunction • Many species of animals are completely color blind

COLOR DEFICIENCY n Most “colorblind” people are unable to differentiate _____ & ______ n

COLOR DEFICIENCY n Most “colorblind” people are unable to differentiate _____ & ______ n In rarer cases, the opposite is true n Who does it affect? • 8% • 5% • 3% n of white men of Asian men black and Native American men It is VERY RARE in women

2 THEORIES OF COLOR VISION n 2) ___________ • Opponent-Process cells and brain neurons

2 THEORIES OF COLOR VISION n 2) ___________ • Opponent-Process cells and brain neurons respond to certain waves and are inhibited from firing by other waves

ANTAGONISTIC COLORS Cells that fire in response to a color stop firing when the

ANTAGONISTIC COLORS Cells that fire in response to a color stop firing when the color is removed and vice versa _____________________ = Antagonistic

NEGATIVES and AFTERIMAGES n n Cells that _______ in response to a color stop

NEGATIVES and AFTERIMAGES n n Cells that _______ in response to a color stop firing when the color is removed Likewise, cell that were inhibited from firing, burst forth when the color is removed

NEGATIVES and AFTERIMAGES n THE RESULTS? • We see red images when we blink

NEGATIVES and AFTERIMAGES n THE RESULTS? • We see red images when we blink after staring at green objects • The cells that switch on or off to signal the presence of green, send the opposite signal (red) when the green is removed…and vice versa

AFTER IMAGE ILLUSIONS WOO HOO!

AFTER IMAGE ILLUSIONS WOO HOO!

PERCEPTUAL TESTING AND DIAGNOSES n __________: tests designed to reveal unconscious motives, feelings, and

PERCEPTUAL TESTING AND DIAGNOSES n __________: tests designed to reveal unconscious motives, feelings, and conflicts. • Usually consist of ambiguous _____, ______, or _______ that the test taker interprets or completes

PROJECTION TESTS n One of the most popular tests is the ____________ • Devised

PROJECTION TESTS n One of the most popular tests is the ____________ • Devised by Hermann Rorschach in 1921 • 10 cards with ________ abstract patterns • Originally formed by spilling ink on paper and folding the paper in half

RORSCHACH TEST n Test takers view the images and report what they see •

RORSCHACH TEST n Test takers view the images and report what they see • Results are reviewed by clinicians and a diagnosis is handed down n EXAMPLE: Certain images, such as soft, comforting items or motherly images may depict someone who is overly dependent. IS THIS TEST RELIABLE?

SHORTCOMINGS OF THE RORSCHACH TEST n n n Too ________; different clinicians interpret scores

SHORTCOMINGS OF THE RORSCHACH TEST n n n Too ________; different clinicians interpret scores differently Low level of validity; they don’t measure what they truly should Results may be greatly affected by _____, ______, and various other factors

PERCEPTION n Differentiating between stimuli is effortless, EXCEPT when they become difficult to comprehend

PERCEPTION n Differentiating between stimuli is effortless, EXCEPT when they become difficult to comprehend • EXAMPLE: Words being spoken rapid-fire in a foreign language

DEPTH AND DISTANCE PERCEPTION n In order to judge the distance of objects, our

DEPTH AND DISTANCE PERCEPTION n In order to judge the distance of objects, our eyes rely on ___________. • BI = TWO, So they are cues that require the use of both eyes. n Help estimate objects UP TO ______ feet away.

BINOCULAR CUES n ___________: Your eyes receive different retinal images of the same object

BINOCULAR CUES n ___________: Your eyes receive different retinal images of the same object • EXAMPLE: Hold your pencil in front of you and view it with only one eye at a time.

DISTANCE AND DEPTH PERCEPTION n For objects FARTHER than 50 feet in distance, we

DISTANCE AND DEPTH PERCEPTION n For objects FARTHER than 50 feet in distance, we use only ___________ • Cues that depend only upon using one eye

MONOCULAR CUES n _________: when 2 parallel lines appear to be coming together, they

MONOCULAR CUES n _________: when 2 parallel lines appear to be coming together, they imply depth