- Slides: 23
VIOLENCE GIVES BIRTH TO VIOLENCE! Violence in schools is a truth of our society, it manifests itself in different forms and the school becomes the space where verbal, mental and physical violence evolves. -From the age of 2 -4 years, obvious manifestations of aggressive behavior can be identified. At this age, the first signs of aggressive behavior are generally overlooked considering them normal attitudes, thus losing the favorable period for proper education of children. - Prospective studies, which have followed children from pre-school to adolescence, have shown that almost half of those who are disorderly and oppositional, become delinquent at adolescence. They have the highest risk of finally committing violent crimes.
The study of violent manifestations in the school environment and of the ways of combating children with different abilities demands the analysis of the triggering factors (family, social, personality). • Family environment - domestic violence, alcohol use, neglect, child abuse, lack of dialogue and affection, use of violent means of punishing the child. • When a child witnesses acts of violence for a long time, he can conclude that impulsivity, constraint and aggression are a normal way of expressing or resolving a situation. Many of the children with an aggressive profile come from disorganized families, from poor family environments. • The social environment - the economic situation, the social inequalities, the crisis of moral values, the media, the lack of cooperation of the institutions involved in education. The lack of social models, the exaggerated media coverage of cases of violence can inhibit the behavior of the students, who may be tempted to imitate the actions seen on television. In the case of children with different abilities, the period spent at school is of 6 hours, the rest of the day they are at home, on the street, watching TV or playing computer games, in most cases violent video games.
The anti-bullying law is in force in Romania only since 2018 • Any behavior that means psychological violence will be sanctioned. • Teachers are the first ones called to intervene. • According to a study by the Save the Children Organization, three out of ten children are threatened with beatings by other classmates or the school, and one in four students was humiliated in front of their colleagues. • Bullying among students is significantly higher in urban than in rural areas (Harding, 2008) • Mobbing is more dangerous than bullying, because it takes place "in pack“ and can have serious consequences
How the teacher should act • When dealing with such a situation, the common recommendation "get your hands on it" is not enough, as harassment does not disappear if, in front of the teacher, the two parties seem to have reconciled. • The motivation behind the aggressor's behavior must be found, the "victim" must be prepared to stop being a victim in the future, to gain adapted behaviors, to "resist" the harassment and to make the harasser give up his behavior.
Modifying unwanted behaviors is an extremely complex and difficult activity. There are two important steps in changing behaviors: ˃ systematic observation of the behaviors in question, of the previous facts and of the ones that follow; >manipulation of behaviors and events in order to achieve the desirable behavior. (manipulation of consequences or background). The specific psycho-pedagogical assistance given to these students is therefore very important. It is accomplished by: • • • Psycho-teacher itinerant teacher, school counselor other professionals (including doctors) multidisciplinary intervention teams.
The technique of reinforcement envisages the manipulation of the event which follows a behavior, and this may be positive or negative. • Positive reinforcement involves the use of rewards to motivate only the appropriate behavior and results in verbal appreciation; nonverbal-smile, applause; physical contact - shaking hands, hugging; material objects; granting access to favorite activities. • Negative reinforcement - disapproval, criticism is meant to decrease the likelihood of negative behavior occurring. This method can only be effective if the child wishes to go beyond that behavior. The modeling technique is based on the assimilation of positive behavioral models by imitating some known persons, for example the teachers from side group The technique of the contract involves an understanding between the student and the teacher, through which the student may carry on an activity he or she loves, if he / she first performs in the task received. In order to achieve success in the development of positive behaviors, desirable behavior will be extended outside the school.
Games have a particularly formative role in educating the child's emotional experiences, and their energy is also channeled constructively. Through play, the child acquires information about the world in which he / she lives, encounters people and objects in the environment, can express his / her own abilities and feelings, is stimulated with communication and interpersonal relations, learns to respect established rules and identify manifestations of desirable behavior. Sport has a very important role in preventing violence, it can channel and remove aggression from a physiological and psychological perspective, promotes the recognition, respect of the rules and the adversary. . The complex and integrated educational therapy also has a special contribution in the cognitive, affective and moral development of the children. Through the activities of socialization, cognitive, personal autonomy, occupational therapy and play therapy, the whole personality of the student is targeted, not only the cognitive side but also the affective, motivational and attitude side. These activities positively influence the process of socializing and developing personal independence and contribute to the reduction of acts of violence.
By their specificity, counseling and leadership hours favor the process of personal development and interpersonal influence, starting from the young school age and can accompany the child throughout the schooling years. Fighting violence at school demands a permanent relationship with the parents of the children. For this purpose, there are weekly counseling hours with the parents, during which they discuss both general problems of the group and personal problems, disciplinary deviations, with the purpose of attracting parents in the prevention of aggression. The fight against violence in schools cannot be perceived without a strong partnership with the proximity police, as it has the task of intervening promptly when incidents occur and to resolve conflictual situations.
The most common forms of violence among students
The most common forms of student violence against teachers
General causes of violence in Romania • Biological causes: genetic factors, neurobiological problems, brain damage, nutrition factors, alcohol and drug use factors • Sociological causes: socio-economic conditions, factors regarding the community and its structure • Psychological causes: psychological disorders associated with a lower level of psycho-intellectual development, but especially the psychological effects of the family environment in which the child develops
The main causes of violence in schools Causes of violence in schools Hierarchy Familial environment I Inability to find other forms of manifestation II Lack of self-esteem III Aggressive behavior of others IV The absence of a rigorous program V Daily / weekly program uploaded VI Mass-media influence VII Group pressure VIII Low self-control IX Alcohol or drug use X Exaggerated supervision by parents / teachers XI Unfulfilled love XII Not accepted by the class collective XIII Teacher behavior XIV
Causes of school violence from school counselor analysis
Data on school violence according to the Ministry of National Education Regarding the situation in our country, in the period 2014 -2015, Romania was ranked first place in Europe in the number of pupils between the ages of 11 and 15, who are harassing other colleagues. Almost half of the children in Romania, more precisely a percentage of 46%, were witnesses and / or victims of bullying at one time. In 2016– 2017, the percentage of cases of bullying in school increased to 57%. There is an 11% increase in cases of bullying in school, and this can be explained by the receptivity of teachers and parents to the multitude of government and school efforts to prevent and combat bullying by reporting the real data regarding violence acts. This is the reusult of the campain „You are a hero in the school yard when you stop a violence act!” Ages of the students involved in school violence Period Percentage of bulling cases in school between students of 11 & 15 years 2014 -2015 46% 2016 -2017 57% Source: UNICEF and Ministry of national Education 2014 -2018
Situation regarding the number of cases of violence in schools provided by the Ministry of National Education Year Physical aggression Sexual aggression Bulling Total aggression signalized to authorities/year 2010 3414 847 6463 10724 2011 3073 942 7827 11842 2012 3125 906 9348 13379 2013 4373 1043 11375 16791 2014 4798 1742 12397 18937 2015 4256 1453 14038 19747 2016 4450 1721 14412 20583 2017 4428 1920 15478 21826 Source: UNICEF and Ministry of national Education 2014 -2018
The situation of bullying in Romania • At European level, Romania ranks 3 rd in terms of bullying in the ranking of the 42 countries where the phenomenon was investigated, according to a report of the World Health Organization (OMS). • Also, the study “Bullying among children. Sociological study at national level “carried out by the Save the Children Organization, highlighted a series of worrying data: § 1 in 4 children was repeatedly humiliated at school in front of their peers; § 1 in 5 children repeatedly humiliated another child at school; § repeatedly, in school, 3 out of 10 children were excluded from the group of colleagues; § 1 in 6 children was repeatedly beaten; § 7 out of 10 children witnessed bullying in the school environment.
DISCRIMINATION on ethnic or mother tongue criteria, disability or special educational requirements, social status or school performance is prohibited in all educational units - by MEN order • According to the project of the Ministry of National Education, the county school inspectorates and the pre-university educational units in Romania will promote with priority the principles of the inclusive school, that is the friendly school that values the socio-ethno-cultural diversity. • "A school in which all children are respected and integrated without discrimination and without exclusion generated by their ethnic origin or mother tongue, disability or special educational requirements, socio-economic status of families, residence environment or school performance of primary beneficiaries of education" , • Children with CES are part of our society. They, more than the other children, need a permanent socialization and collaboration with other children to ensure their social integration. By directly contacting students from other school institutions and by participating with them in various activities, the isolation is diminished, and the aggression tendencies are largely eliminated, contributing to the improvement of their way of life.
School segregation • Segregation is a serious form of discrimination and has as a consequence the unequal access of children to a quality education, the violation of the exercise on equal terms of the right to education, as well as of human dignity, shows the MEN project in Romania, • According to this, school segregation on the ethnic criterion constitutes the physical separation of the children and the students belonging to an ethnic group in the pre-university education unit, respectively in groups, classes, buildings or the placement of the students in the last two rows of desks, but there is no school segregation on the ethnic criterion if there are groups, classes or schools in the purpose of teaching in that mother tongue of that ethnic group or in the bilingual system. • The formation of groups or classes with children or students with disabilities or with special educational requirements in a pre-university mass education unit represents school segregation and is prohibited. In contrast, it does not constitute school segregation to establish and operate, under the law, special education units. • Also, the organization of classes, groups on the criterion of the socio-economic status of parents, families, constitutes school segregation, but also, on the criterion of school performance, as well as according to the residence environment.
Romanian Orthodox Theological High School "Nicolae Steinhardt" Violence Acts of verbal violence: - teasing, irony, reproaches, gossip, quarrels Acts of physical violence: - harsh, threatening, aggressive aggression (defense) Acts of emotional violence: - intimidation Bullying It's talked about in the back Nasty messages are posted on the net (cyberbullying), but personally in private Offensive texts are transmitted by phone or comments are made about weight, appearance, school activity Teasing
Recommendations: • Interventions at the individual level • Early identification of students with potential for violence • Active involvement of students with potential for violence and capitalizing the interests, skills and capacity of students who have committed acts of violence • Avoid focusing exclusively on sanction • Interventions at school level • Violence -topic on the agenda of formal school meetings • A better understanding of the possible sources of violence • Transforming the school regulation from a formal instrument into a real means of prevention and intervention • at the school level - structures with mediation role (resource centers); • programs to inform students about the appropriate ways of managing specific situations of violence (self -control, conflict negotiation, communication, self-defense means);
Recommendations : • Interventions at curricular level • Debate and encourage students to express their opinions • Validify relevant themes, important to the issue of violence (the rights and duties of the individual, freedom and norm / rule of behavior, decision and the consequences of decisions, social skills, etc. ) • Extra-curricular programs and activities (anti-violence week; thematic contests / exhibitions, inviting specialists to interactively present topics related to school violence in which to participate, besides students, and teachers and parents) • Strategic interventions • Awareness campaigns • System of national monitoring of phenomena of violence in school (National Observatory) • Stimulating inter-institutional cooperation and involvement of civil society • Topics on school violence in teacher education programs • Optional disciplines focused on violence prevention • Stimulating research on school violence
The strategy for preventing and combating violence in schools is a national priority that requires concrete measures and enhancing partnerships for this purpose with all the factors involved in the child's life: - the police, the church, schools, protection and assistance services, the media, the civil society, as a whole.