Victorian Sustainability Conference Earthship Brighton UK The first

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Victorian Sustainability Conference Earthship Brighton (UK) – The first building utilising Tec. Eco eco-cements

Victorian Sustainability Conference Earthship Brighton (UK) – The first building utilising Tec. Eco eco-cements I will have to race over some slides but the presentation is always downloadable from the Tec. Eco web site if you missed something. John Harrison B. Sc. B. Ec. FCPA. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 1

The Problem – A Planet in Crisis Tec. Eco are in the BIGGEST Business

The Problem – A Planet in Crisis Tec. Eco are in the BIGGEST Business on the Planet Solving Sustainability Problems Economically Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 2

Demographic Explosion? ? Undeveloped Countries Developed Countries Global population, consumption per capita and our

Demographic Explosion? ? Undeveloped Countries Developed Countries Global population, consumption per capita and our footprint on the planet is exploding. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 3

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 4

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 4

Global Temperature Anomaly Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 5

Global Temperature Anomaly Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 5

Ecological Footprint Our footprint is exceeding the capacity of the planet to support it.

Ecological Footprint Our footprint is exceeding the capacity of the planet to support it. We are not longer sustainable as a species and must change our ways Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 6

Ecological Footprint Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 7

Ecological Footprint Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 7

Victoria Before Settlement Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 8

Victoria Before Settlement Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 8

Victoria Now Paper Mill - Soda liquor + Cl Forestry Cover removal Vehicles -

Victoria Now Paper Mill - Soda liquor + Cl Forestry Cover removal Vehicles - carbon dioxide Cows - methane Farming Pesticide, N & K Immediate and polluted run-off. Pollution. Carbon dioxide and other gases. Sewerage. Huge linkages Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 9

Victoria with a Little Lateral Thinking & Effort Tec. Eco technology provides ways of

Victoria with a Little Lateral Thinking & Effort Tec. Eco technology provides ways of sequestering carbon dioxide and utilising wastes to create our techno - world Less paper. Other Cl free processes no salinity Evolution away from using trees – paperless office Vehicles – more efficient and using fuel cells Cows – CSIO anti methane bred Porous pavement prevents immediate and polluted run-off. Carbon dioxide and other gases absorbed by Tec. Eco eco-cements. Sewerage converted to fertilizer and returned to soils. Buildings generate own energy etc. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com Organic farming Carbon returned to soils. Use of zeolite reduces water and fertilizer required by 2/3 10

Innovative New Materials Vital Ü We need to think at the supply and waste

Innovative New Materials Vital Ü We need to think at the supply and waste end when we design building materials – not just about the materials utility phase in the middle Ü Making the built environment not only a repository for recyclable resources (referred to as waste) but a huge carbon sink is an alternative and adjunct that is politically viable as it potentially results in economic benefits. Ü Concrete, a cementitous composite, is the single biggest material flow on the planet with over 2 tonnes person produced and a C good place to start. C Ü By including carbon, materials C are potentially carbon sinks. C Ü By including wastes many problems at C C the waste end are solved. C Eco-cement example Δ Mg. CO 3 → Mg. O + ↓CO 2 - Efficient low temperature calcination & capture Mg. O + ↓CO 2 + H 2 O → Mg. CO 3. 3 H 2 O - Sequestration as building material Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 11

Tec. Eco & Integrated Processes Ü Silicate → Carbonate Mineral Sequestration – Using either

Tec. Eco & Integrated Processes Ü Silicate → Carbonate Mineral Sequestration – Using either peridotite, forsterite or serpentine as inputs to a silicate reactor process CO 2 is sequestered and magnesite produced. – Proven by others (NETL, MIT, TNO, Finnish govt. Tec. Eco etc. ) Ü Tec-Kiln Technology – Combined calcining and grinding in a closed system allowing the capture of CO 2. Powered by waste heat, solar or solar derived energy. – To be proved but simple and should work! Economic under Kyoto? Ü Direct Scrubbing of CO 2 using Mg. O – Being proven by others (NETL, MIT, TNO, Finnish Tec. Eco govt. etc. ) Ü Eco-Cement Concretes in the Built Environment. – Tec. Eco eco-cements set by absorbing CO 2 and are as good as proven. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 12

The Tec. Eco Total Process Serpentine Mg 3 Si 2 O 5(OH)4 Olivine Mg

The Tec. Eco Total Process Serpentine Mg 3 Si 2 O 5(OH)4 Olivine Mg 2 Si. O 4 Crushing Grinding CO 2 from Power Generation or Industry Screening Grinding Waste Sulfuric Acid or Alkali? Screening Magnetic Sep. Iron Ore. Heat Treatment Silicate Reactor Process Gravity Concentration Silicic Acids or Silica Magnesite (Mg. CO 3) Simplified Tec. Eco Reactions Tec-Kiln Mg. CO 3 → Mg. O + CO 2 - 118 k. J/mole Reactor Process Mg. O + CO 2 → Mg. CO 3 + 118 k. J/mole (usually more complex hydrates) Solar or Wind Electricity Powered Tec-Kiln CO 2 for Geological Sequestration Magnesia (Mg. O) Other Wastes after Processing Mg. O for Tec. Eco Cements and Sequestration by Eco-Cements in the Built Environment Magnesium Thermodynamic Cycle Magnesite Mg. CO 3) Oxide Reactor Process CO 2 from Power Generation, Industry or CO 2 Directly From the Air Tonnes CO 2 Sequestered per Tonne Silicate with Various Cycles through the Tec. Eco Process Chrysotile (Serpentinite) Billion Tonnes Forsterite (Mg Olivine) Billion Tonnes CO 2 sequestered by 1 billion tonnes of mineral mined directly . 4769 . 6255 Tonnes CO 2 captured during calcining . 4769 . 6255 Tonnes CO 2 captured by eco-cement . 4769 . 6255 Total tonnes CO 2 sequestered or abated per tonne mineral mined (Single calcination cycle). 1. 431 1. 876 Total tonnes CO 2 sequestered or abated (Five calcination cycles. ) 3. 339 4. 378 Total tonnes CO 2 sequestered or abated (Ten calcination cycles). 5. 723 7. 506 Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 13

Why Mangesium Compounds Ü Because magnesium has a low molecular weight, proportionally a much

Why Mangesium Compounds Ü Because magnesium has a low molecular weight, proportionally a much greater amount of CO 2 is released or captured. Ü This, together with the high proportion of water in the binder is what makes construction the built environment out of CO 2 and water so exciting. Ü Imagine the possibilities if CO 2 could be captured during the manufacture of eco-cement! Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 14

Tec. Eco Kiln Technology Ü Grinds and calcines at the same time. Ü Runs

Tec. Eco Kiln Technology Ü Grinds and calcines at the same time. Ü Runs 25% to 30% more efficiency. Ü Can be powered by solar energy or waste heat. Ü Brings mineral sequestration and geological sequestration together Ü Captures CO 2 for bottling and sale to the oil industry (geological sequestration). Ü The products – Ca. O &/or Mg. O can be used to sequester more CO 2 and then be re-calcined. This cycle can then be repeated. Ü Suitable for making reactive Mg. O. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 15

A Post – Carbon Age We all use carbon and wastes to make our

A Post – Carbon Age We all use carbon and wastes to make our homes! Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 16

Tec. Eco Cements SUSTAINABILITY PORTLAND POZZOLAN Hydration of the various components of Portland cement

Tec. Eco Cements SUSTAINABILITY PORTLAND POZZOLAN Hydration of the various components of Portland cement for strength. DURABILITY Reaction of alkali with pozzolans (e. g. lime with fly ash. ) for sustainability, durability and strength. TECECO CEMENTS STRENGTH MAGNESIA Hydration of magnesia => brucite fo strength, workability, dimensional stability and durability. In Eco-cements carbonation of brucite => nesquehonite, lansfordite and an amorphous phase for sustainability. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com Tec. Eco concretes are a system of blending reactive magnesia, Portland cement and usually a pozzolan with other materials and are a key factor for sustainability. 17

Eco-Cement compared to Carbonating Lime Mortar. Ü The underlying chemistry is very similar however

Eco-Cement compared to Carbonating Lime Mortar. Ü The underlying chemistry is very similar however eco-cements are potentially superior to lime mortars because: – The calcination phase of the magnesium thermodynamic cycle takes place at a much lower temperature – Magnesium minerals are generally more fibrous and acicular than calcium minerals and hence a lot stronger. – Water forms part of the binder minerals that forming making the cement component go further. – Magnesium hydroxide in particular and to some extent the carbonates are less reactive and mobile and thus much more durable. – A less reactive environment with a lower long term p. H. (around 10. 5 instead of 12. 35) Ü Because magnesium has a low molecular weight, proportionally a much greater amount of CO 2 is captured. Ü Carbonation in the built environment would result in significant sequestration because of the shear volumes involved. Ü Carbonation adds considerable strength and some steel reinforced structural concrete could be replaced with fibre reinforced porous carbonated concrete. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 18

Tec. Eco Binders - Solving Waste Problems Ü There are huge volumes of concrete

Tec. Eco Binders - Solving Waste Problems Ü There are huge volumes of concrete produced annually ( 2 tonnes person per year ) Ü The goal should be to make cementitious composites that can utilise wastes. Ü Tec. Eco cements provide a benign environment suitable for waste immobilisation Ü Many wastes such as fly ash, sawdust , shredded plastics etc. can improve a property or properties of the cementitious composite. There are huge materials flows in both wastes and building and construction. Tec. Eco technology will lead the world in the race to incorporate wastes in cementitous composites Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 19

Tec. Eco Binders - Solving Waste Problems (2) ÜTec. Eco cementitious composites represent a

Tec. Eco Binders - Solving Waste Problems (2) ÜTec. Eco cementitious composites represent a cost affective option for both use and immobilisation of waste. – – – – – Lower reactivity (less water, lower p. H). Reduced solubility of heavy metals (lower p. H). Greater durability. Dense. Impermeable (tec-cements). Homogenous. No bleed water. Are not attacked by salts in ground or sea water. Are dimensionally more stable with less cracking. Tec. Eco Technology Converting Waste to Resource Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 20

Lower Solubility of Metal Hydroxides There is a 104 difference Presentation downloadable from www.

Lower Solubility of Metal Hydroxides There is a 104 difference Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 21

Change Ü“It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most

Change Ü“It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent; it is the one that is most adaptable to change (Darwin, C. , 1859). ” ÜDrivers for Change: – The necessity of converting waste to resources – The demand for sustainability – The introduction of robotics into construction. – Improved materials. – More economic materials Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 22

Drivers Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 23

Drivers Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 23

The Solution must be Economic. Ü With record energy prices the argument of Hawken

The Solution must be Economic. Ü With record energy prices the argument of Hawken and Lovins in the book Natural Capitalism that sustainability makes good business sense has never been more vindicated Ü Moves towards ensuring a sustainable future by changing the materials we use have to be more economic than not changing them. – Otherwise, given human nature, they will not happen Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 24

Economically Driven Sustainability The challenge is to harness human behaviours which underlay economic supply

Economically Driven Sustainability The challenge is to harness human behaviours which underlay economic supply and demand phenomena by changing the technical paradigm in favour of making carbon dioxide and other wastes resources. ECONOMICS Sustainable processes are more efficient and therefore more economic. What is needed are sustainable process that also deliver sustainable materials and innovation will deliver these new technical paradigms. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 25

Cultural Change and Paradigm Shifts in Technology Increase in demand/price ratio for sustainability due

Cultural Change and Paradigm Shifts in Technology Increase in demand/price ratio for sustainability due to educationally induced cultural drift. $ Equilibrium shift ECONOMICS Supply Greater Value/for impact (Sustainability) Demand Increase in supply/price ratio for more # sustainable products due to innovative changes in the technical paradigm. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 26

To Make Carbon and Wastes Resources the Key is To Change the Technology Paradigm

To Make Carbon and Wastes Resources the Key is To Change the Technology Paradigm “By enabling us to make productive use of particular raw materials, technology determines what constitutes a physical resource 1” 1. Pilzer, Paul Zane, Unlimited Wealth, Theory and Practice of Economic Alchemy, Crown Publishers Inc. New York. 1990 Changing the technical paradigm will affect the supply of and demand for more sustainable materials Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 27

Materials – The Key to Sustainability Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 28

Materials – The Key to Sustainability Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 28

A Killer Application for Waste? Ü Wastes – Utilizing wastes based on their chemical

A Killer Application for Waste? Ü Wastes – Utilizing wastes based on their chemical composition involves energy consuming transport. – Wastes could be utilized as resources depending on their class of properties rather than chemical composition. • in vast quantities based on broadly defined properties such as light weight, tensile strength, insulating capacity, strength or thermal capacity in composites. • Many wastes contain carbon and if utilized would result in net carbon sinks. Ü Tec. Eco binders enable many wastes to be converted to resources. Two examples: – Plastics – Sawdust and wood waste Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 29

Sustainability Summary Ü A more holistic approach is to reduce energy consumption as well

Sustainability Summary Ü A more holistic approach is to reduce energy consumption as well as sequester carbon. Ü To reduce our linkages with the environment we must convert waste to resource (recycle). Ü Sequestration and recycling have to be economic processes or they have no hope of success. Ü We cannot stop progress, but we can change and historically economies thrive on change. Ü What can be changed is the technical paradigm. CO 2 and wastes need to be redefined as resources. Ü New and better materials are required that utilize wastes including CO 2 to create a wide range of materials suitable for use in our built environment. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 30

Policy Summary Ü Governments cannot easily legislate for sustainability, it is more important that

Policy Summary Ü Governments cannot easily legislate for sustainability, it is more important that ways are found to make sustainability good business. – – “Feel good” legislation does not work. Deposit Legislation works but is difficult to implement successfully. Carbon rationing would be difficult to achieve globally. Need to underpin Kyoto with a real price for carbon. Ü It is therefore important for governments to make efforts to understand new technical paradigms that will change the techno-process so it delivers sustainable outcomes Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 31

The Largest Material Flow - Cement and Concrete Ü Concrete made with cement is

The Largest Material Flow - Cement and Concrete Ü Concrete made with cement is the most widely used material on Earth accounting for some 30% of all materials flows on the planet and 60 - 70% of all materials flows in the built environment. – Global Portland cement production is in the order of 2 billion tonnes per annum. – Globally over 14 billion tonnes of concrete are poured per year. – That’s over 2 tonnes person per annum Tec. Eco Pty. Ltd. have benchmark technologies for improvement in sustainability and properties Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 32

Embodied Energy of Building Materials Concrete is relatively environmentally friendly and has a relatively

Embodied Energy of Building Materials Concrete is relatively environmentally friendly and has a relatively low embodied energy Downloaded from www. dbce. csiro. au/indserv/brochures/embodied. htm (last accessed 07 March 2000) Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 33

Cement Production = Carbon Dioxide Emissions Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 34

Cement Production = Carbon Dioxide Emissions Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 34

Emissions from Cement Production Ü Portland cement used in construction is made from carbonate.

Emissions from Cement Production Ü Portland cement used in construction is made from carbonate. Ü The process of calcination involves driving off chemically bound CO 2 with heat. Ca. CO 3 →Ca. O + ↑CO 2 ∆ Ü Heating also requires energy. – 94% of energy is still derived from fossil fuels. – Fuel oil, coal and natural gas are directly or indirectly burned to produce the energy required releasing CO 2. Ü The production of cement for concretes accounts for around 10%(1) of global anthropogenic CO 2. (1) Pearce, F. , "The Concrete Jungle Overheats", New Scientist, 19 July, No 2097, 1997 (page 14). Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 35

Average Embodied Energy in Buildings Most of the embodied energy in the built environment

Average Embodied Energy in Buildings Most of the embodied energy in the built environment is in concrete. But because so much is used there is a huge opportunity for sustainability by reducing the embodied energy, reducing the carbon debt (net emissions) and improving properties. Downloaded from www. dbce. csiro. au/indserv/brochures/embodied. htm (last accessed 07 March 2000) Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 36

Landfill – The Visible Legacy of Not Recycling Landfill is the technical term for

Landfill – The Visible Legacy of Not Recycling Landfill is the technical term for filling large holes in the ground with waste. Landfills release methane, can cause ill health in the area, lead to the contamination of land, underground water, streams and coastal waters and give rise to various nuisances including increased traffic, noise, odours, smoke, dust, litter and pests. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 37

Tec. Eco Binders - Utilising Wastes Ü An important objective should be to make

Tec. Eco Binders - Utilising Wastes Ü An important objective should be to make cementitious composites that can utilise wastes. Ü Tec. Eco cements provide a benign environment suitable for waste immobilisation. Ü Many wastes such as fly ash, sawdust , shredded plastics etc. can improve a property or properties of the cementitious composite. There are huge materials flows in both wastes and building and construction. Tec. Eco technology leads the world in the race to incorporate wastes in cementitous composites Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 38

The Impact of Tec. Eco Technology Ü Tec. Eco magnesian cement technology will be

The Impact of Tec. Eco Technology Ü Tec. Eco magnesian cement technology will be pivotal in bringing about sustainability in the built environment. – Tec-Cements Develop Significant Early Strength even with Added Supplementary Materials. Around 25 = 30% less binder is required for the same strength. – Eco-cements carbonate sequestering CO 2 – Both tec and eco=cements provide a benign low p. H environment for hosting large quantities of waste Ü The CO 2 released by calcined carbonates used to make binders can be captured using Tec. Eco kiln technology. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 39

Tec. Eco Challenging the World Ü The Tec. Eco technology is new and not

Tec. Eco Challenging the World Ü The Tec. Eco technology is new and not yet fully characterised. Ü Tec. Eco cement technology offers – a new tool – sustainability in the built environment not previously considered possible. Ü The world desperately needs a way of sequestering large volumes of CO 2 such as made possible by eco-cements. Ü Formula rather than performance based standards are preventing the development of new and better materials based on mineral binders. Ü Tec. Eco challenge universities governments and construction authorities to quantify performance in comparison to ordinary Portland cement and other competing materials. Ü We at Tec. Eco will do our best to assist. Ü Negotiations are underway in many countries to organise supplies to allow such scientific endeavour to proceed. Presentation downloadable from www. tececo. com 40