Verbals Participles Infinitives Gerunds
Is it a VERB or a VERBAL? ? � Telling the difference between a verb and a verbal is not done by looking only at the word itself. � You have to see how the word is being used. � In both cases, the word looks like a verb, but if it’s used as something other than a verb…it’s a VERBAL
Is it a VERB or a VERBAL? ? � Examples: ◦ ◦ Waxed Flowing Playing Sleeping � These can be verbs or verbals depending upon how they are used in the sentence.
Is it a VERB or a VERBAL? ? � Examples: ◦ Our butler waxed the floors. ◦ The waxed floors were slippery and dangerous. � In the first sentence, the word is being used as a verb to tell what action is being done. � In the other one, the word still looks like a verb, but it is being used as an adjective
Is it a VERB or a VERBAL? ? � Examples: ◦ Water was flowing over the rocks in the stream. ◦ Flowing water carries a great deal of potential energy. � The same thing is true here as in the other example. � The second sentences shows the verb working as an adjective instead of a verb.
Basic Information on Verbals � Verbals are verb forms (words that look like verbs or could be verbs in other sentences) that are used as one of the following: ◦ Noun ◦ Adjective ◦ Adverb �A verbal can never be the verb of the sentence.
Basic Information on Verbals � There are three different kinds of verbals: ◦ Participles ◦ Infinitives ◦ Gerunds � Each verbal has a specific purpose and use in a sentence.
Participles �Verb forms that are used as adjectives are called participles. �They will have two forms: ◦ Present (ending in “-ing”) ◦ Past (ending in “-ed” or “-en”) �These contain action, but they are not used as verbs in the sentence.
Participles �Examples: ◦ Smoking gun ◦ Snoring spouse ◦ Broken window ◦ Elected official ◦ Streaming video ◦ Buzzing noise ◦ Winning touchdown ◦ Walking track
Participles �Participles can appear in several places in the sentence, but they are most commonly found describing / modifying the subject. �Participle phrases can also be made from single participles ◦ Running along the path
Participles � Most participle phrases will have commas setting them off. This is especially true when they open a sentence and modify the subject. ◦ Running at full speed, the back raced twenty yards for a score. ◦ Crying loudly, the baby wanted some attention.
Infinitives �An infinitive is a verb form that is proceeded by the word “to. ” ◦ To play ◦ To sleep ◦ To be seen ◦ To steal ◦ To have been stolen ◦ To speak
Infinitives �An infinitive has three possible functions: ◦ As a noun ◦ As an adjective ◦ As an adverb �Knowing where an infinitive should go helps make the structure of the sentence more clear.
Infinitives � As a noun: � As an adjective: � As an adverb: ◦ I hate to go. (direct object) ◦ To steal is a crime. (subject) ◦ It’s time to go. (modify time) ◦ There are jobs to be done (modify jobs) ◦ He always plays to win. (modify plays)
Infinitives �Be careful not to create “split” infinitives. �This is done when an adverb is placed between the “to” and the verb form. ◦ To boldly go…. ◦ To strenuously object… ◦ To always comply… �It is bad structure for this to be formed.
Gerunds �A gerund looks a lot like a participle because it ends in “-ing. ” �However, the gerund is going to be used as a noun. �Gerunds will show up as subjects, direct or indirect objects or objects of prepositions.
Gerunds �Examples: ◦ Chewing gum in class is not allowed. (subject) ◦ I liked eating at the new restaurant. (direct object) ◦ Without running very hard I won the race. ◦ Abusing the warm fuzzy kitten is not allowed in this class. (subject)
Practice: � You will be shown ten sentences with a word or phrase underlined. � Identify the word or phrases as: ◦ Participle ◦ Infinitive ◦ Gerund
Practice: 1. Sleeping soundly in his bed, Ron was not going to be disturbed by anyone in his house. 2. I wanted to try out for the lacrosse team this spring. 3. The rushing waters of the Colorado River were great for rafting.
Practice: 4. The warm fuzzy kitten, meowing loudly in the hallway, was a nuisance. 5. We tried shooting with the NBA’s new basketball and found it to be challenging. 6. To run a mile in less than four minutes is nearly impossible.
Practice: 7. Charging wildly down the street, the bulls tried to crush the citizens of Pamplona. 8. Cheating on a final exam in English is not an advisable solution to not studying. 9. To sleep, perchance to dream.
Practice: 10. On the sixth day of Xmas, my true love gave to me six geese a-laying, five gold rings, four calling birds, three French hens, two turtle doves and a partridge in a pear tree.