Verbals Bad, bad verbs Verbs that act like another part of speech Gerunds Participles Infinitives
Gerunds /1. A geru. Nd is a verb ending in -ing that is used as a Noun. /2. A gerund phrase consists of a gerund plus modifier(s), object(s), and/or complement(s). /3. Gerunds and gerund phrases virtually never require punctuation.
Examples of Gerunds /Gerund as subject: Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences. Running is a great exercise.
/Gerund as direct object: They do not appreciate my singing. Francis enjoys swimming.
/Gerund as subject complement: My cat's favorite activity is sleeping. Tom’s best sport is running.
/Gerund as object of preposition: The police arrested him for speeding.
Participles /1. A p. Articiple is a verbal ending in -ing (present) or -ed (past) that functions as an Adjective. /2. A participial phrase consists of a participle plus modifier(s), object(s), and/or complement(s). /3. Participles and participial phrases must be placed as close to the nouns or pronouns they modify as possible.
Examples of Participles / He ate a boiled egg for breakfast. / I like to see smiling faces. /A raging snowstorm struck the city. /Disturbed, she consulted her doctor about the symptoms. /The police shined the glaring light on the robber.
/In Be careful of dangling participles. order to prevent confusion, a participial phrase must be placed as close to the noun it modifies as possible, and the noun must be clearly stated. Carrying a heavy pile of books, his foot caught on a step. /ｷ Carrying a heavy pile of books, he caught his foot on a step. /ｷ
More Dangling Participles /After rotting in the cellar for weeks, my brother brought out some shriveled potatoes. /After running five red lights, the police officer stopped the speeding motorist.
/After sitting in the freezer for three hours, my mother served the ice cream cake roll. /After being thoroughly beaten, the chef cooked the eggs. /Rushing from the restaurant, the crystal sugar bowl fell out of her pocket.
Infinitives to + verb = infinitive /Important Note: Because an infinitive is not a verb, you cannot add s, ed, or ing to the end. Ever! /Infinitives or adverbs. can be used as nouns, adjectives,
Infinitives as nouns To study English is very difficult for me. /
Infinitives as Adjectives /We have five questions to answer.
Infinitives used as adverbs /The man came to confess.
To split or not to split? /The general rule is that no word should separate the to of an infinitive from the simple form of the verb that follows. If a word does come between these two components, a split infinitive results. Look at the example that follows:
NO Sara hopes to quickly finish her chemistry homework. YES Sara hopes to finish her chemistry homework quickly.
Your assignment: /Create 10 sentences using verbals. Each verbal must be represented. Underline and label verbals.