Verb Forms Forms of Verbs n All verbs

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Verb Forms

Verb Forms

Forms of Verbs n All verbs (except auxiliary verb be) have 5 forms. The

Forms of Verbs n All verbs (except auxiliary verb be) have 5 forms. The past participle form is not always related to past time. Base form (no -s) -s form -ing form Past tense form Past participle form drives driving drove driven eg 1471/jc/dec 2008

Forms of Verbs n The -ing form and the past participle form need an

Forms of Verbs n The -ing form and the past participle form need an auxiliary verb to function as a complete verb. Many have given this product a try. n The -s form and the past tense form can function as complete main verbs of a clause. Many gave this product a try. eg 1471/jc/dec 2008

Regular and Irregular Verbs n Regular and irregular verbs are mainly differentiated by their

Regular and Irregular Verbs n Regular and irregular verbs are mainly differentiated by their past tense and past participles. n Regular verbs always have -d/-ed in their past tense and past participle. Base form Past tense Past Participle lived walked eg 1471/jc/dec 2008

Irregular Verbs n n The past tense and past participles of irregular verbs do

Irregular Verbs n n The past tense and past participles of irregular verbs do not end in -d/-ed. Base form Past tense Past Participle take took taken Some irregular verbs remain the same for the past tense and past participle. Base form Past tense cut cut cost eg 1471/jc/dec 2008 Past Participle

Irregular Verbs n A few irregular verbs have an irregular -s form. Base form

Irregular Verbs n A few irregular verbs have an irregular -s form. Base form Past tense do does go goes have has eg 1471/jc/dec 2008

Auxiliary Verb Do n Do, does, did are always followed by the base form

Auxiliary Verb Do n Do, does, did are always followed by the base form of the verb. n When used in questions for statements with no auxiliary verb, the auxiliary verb do is placed in the front of the subject. Statement: The programme works well. Question: eg 1471/jc/dec 2008 Does the programme work well?

Auxiliary Verb Do n In negations when no other auxiliary verb is present, the

Auxiliary Verb Do n In negations when no other auxiliary verb is present, the auxiliary verb do is followed by the base form of the verb. Statement: The programme works well. Negation: n The programme does not work well. Auxiliary verb do is also used for emphasis. The employees did try their best to meet their monthly targets. eg 1471/jc/dec 2008

Auxiliary Verb Have n The have auxiliary verb in the present and past perfect

Auxiliary Verb Have n The have auxiliary verb in the present and past perfect tenses is followed by a past participle form. The investigation team has worked very hard. (regular verb) The team has done a through investigation. (irregular verb) By the time the investigation team arrived at the conference room, the meeting had commenced. (regular verb) eg 1471/jc/dec 2008

Auxiliary Verb Be Present Past -ing form Past participle Passive voice is are am

Auxiliary Verb Be Present Past -ing form Past participle Passive voice is are am was were being been is/are/am/ was/were + being has/have/ had been eg 1471/jc/dec 2008

Verbals or verbal phrase n A verbal is a verb that can be followed

Verbals or verbal phrase n A verbal is a verb that can be followed by a verb form. verbal The committee decided to start work as planned. A verbal can be in the form of an infinitive (to + verb), a gerund (verb + -ing) or a base form. eg 1471/jc/dec 2008

Verbs followed by a Gerund postpone complete suggest resume risk discuss consider recommend regret

Verbs followed by a Gerund postpone complete suggest resume risk discuss consider recommend regret Examples: The managers have considered getting everyone involved in the meeting. The trainers suggest trying another method to overcome the obstacles. eg 1471/jc/dec 2008

Verbs followed by an Infinitive agree endeavour attempt deserve offer plan appear tend consent

Verbs followed by an Infinitive agree endeavour attempt deserve offer plan appear tend consent Examples: The managers agree to get everyone involved in the meeting. The trainers attempted to improve their trainees’ skills through more challenging tasks. See Lane and Lange (1999), p. 39 for more details. eg 1471/jc/dec 2008

Verbs followed by a Gerund or an Infinitive begin start stop try continue prefer

Verbs followed by a Gerund or an Infinitive begin start stop try continue prefer Examples: The weather begins turning for the worse. The weather begins to turn for the worse. eg 1471/jc/dec 2008

Verbs followed by a Base Form make have let help (this verb can also

Verbs followed by a Base Form make have let help (this verb can also be followed by an infinitive) Examples: The authorities will let the people know the outcome. By making the policies known, the government will help keep (or help to keep) their citizens informed about the state of affairs. eg 1471/jc/dec 2008

Infinitives followed by Adjectives n Use an infinitive after these adjectives eager content proud

Infinitives followed by Adjectives n Use an infinitive after these adjectives eager content proud amazed determined reluctant anxious hesitant ready careful pleased surprised Examples: The minister is anxious to please the people. The parents were amazed to discover the truth. eg 1471/jc/dec 2008

Common Verb Form Errors n The past participle in a verb phrase has been

Common Verb Form Errors n The past participle in a verb phrase has been incorrectly formed. *The politicians knew they had not make time to discuss this issue. n A main verb or an adjective has been incorrectly used instead of be + past participle. *Everyone should be concern about the environment. eg 1471/jc/dec 2008

Common Verb Form Errors n The auxiliary verb and the main verb should match

Common Verb Form Errors n The auxiliary verb and the main verb should match each other in a verb phrase. *The project was not progress as planned. n Use only an infinitive or a gerund (but not a base form) when a verbal functions as a subject. * Check the processes helps to make sure everything is in order. eg 1471/jc/dec 2008

Common Verb Form Errors n Use a gerund as an object of a preposition.

Common Verb Form Errors n Use a gerund as an object of a preposition. *The lecturer talked everyone into do more extra assignments. n Use an infinitive after certain adjectives. *They are reluctant attend the interview. eg 1471/jc/dec 2008

Common Verb Form Errors n Use an infinitive to express a purpose (shortened form

Common Verb Form Errors n Use an infinitive to express a purpose (shortened form of in order to). *The graduate students went to their supervisor’s office seek his advice on their project. n Use a perfective infinitive (to+ have+ past participle) where events or conditions expressed by the infinitive are in the past. *To produce a higher crop yield was an impossibility given this monsoon season. eg 1471/jc/dec 2008

Sources Lane, A. and Lange, E. (1999). Writing Clearly: An Editing Guide (2 nd

Sources Lane, A. and Lange, E. (1999). Writing Clearly: An Editing Guide (2 nd ed. ). USA: Heinle and Heinle Publishers. Oshima, A. and Hogue, A. (2006). Writing Academic English (4 th ed. ). New York: Pearson Education, 28 -45. Raimes, A. (2006). Grammar Troublespots: A Guide for Student Writers (3 rd ed. ). New York: Cambridge University Press, 32 -40. eg 1471/jc/dec 2008