- Slides: 40
Vegetation Regions of Canada
Vegetation Regions ✧ A regions vegetation is determined by its climate and soils ✧ Different types of vegetation require different combinations of climate and soils to grow ✧ The vegetation in turn, affects the character of the soil ✧ There are seven vegetation regions in Canada
Tundra ² Most northerly region in Canada ² Located above the tree line ² Growing season is very short - climate cold and dry (less than 400 mm) ² Most of the tundra has permafrost, or permanently frozen ground ² Vegetation: small shrubs, mosses and lichens ² Soils: very little humus because of the lack of vegetation, the water-logged nature of the soil and the cold climate
Boreal and Taiga Forest ² Located directly south of the tundra, the largest vegetation region in Canada ² A little warmer than the Tundra which provides a longer growing season ² Enough precipitation to support trees, more and more the further south you go ² Vegetation: Coniferous trees to the north, deciduous trees on southern portion of this region. This is due to the difference in temp/prec ² Soils: shallow humus layer because coniferous trees do not lose their needles, results in a grey soil. Lots of leaching taking place.
Mixed Forest ² Located south of the boreal forest in eastern Canada, it is warmer longer here, with more precipitation ² Mixed forest: spruce, fir, pine, cedar, hemlock are found in the same forest as maple, beech, ask and oak. The Boreal region has both too, what is the difference? ² This mixed forest is a transition zone between the boreal forest of the north and the deciduous forest of the south. ² Not much of this forest is left in the southern region because of farming, lumbering, urban development, and transportation routes
² Soils: the humus created from the leaves of such a variety of leaves is a deep grey-brown topsoil rich in minerals ² Do these conditions sound familiar?
Deciduous Forest ² Located in southwestern Ontario. Only small remnants of this forest remain since most of it has been cleared for farming. ² Precipitation is abundant ² Since summers are long and hot, hardwood trees such as maple, beech, hickory and ash are able to survive (hold sap for winter better) ² Soils: less acidic, contain a lot of humus and are dark brown in colour – most fertile soils in
These trees lose their leaves in the fall and contribute to humus formation
Grasslands ² Also known as the prairies, are located in the Southern parts of Manitoba, Sask. and Alberta ² Very dry climate that is suited for grass ² Drought resistant short grasses, sagebrush and cactus are the only types of vegetation that can survive here. ² Soils: limited rainfall and high evaporation create calcified soils which are unsuitable for crops – cattle are grazed instead
Grasslands Continued… ² Surrounding the southern parts of the grasslands is a region where increased precipitation encourages the growth of tall grasses ² Year after year as the tall grasses die in the fall, they produce large amounts of humus that result in rich, black soil. ² This is the richest soil in Canada and produces some of the best grains in the world.
Cordilleran Vegetation ² Varied vegetation as a result of varied climate ² From grasses and cactuses to coniferous forests to no forests at all! ² Soils of all types are found on the mountains of the Western Cordillera
West Coast Forest ² Along the west coast of Canada grows lush forests of Douglas fir, Sitka spruce, red cedar and western hemlock ² The heavy rainfall plus the mild climate of the coastal region provide excellent growing conditions for the trees ² Lush vegetation creates a lot of humus but the vast amount of rain still causes leaching, for this reason, trees more than a metre in diameter and 50 m high are common ² These old growth forests have become the focus of environmental groups who wish to protect these ancient trees
These giant trees attract tourists from across the world
Game: “Name that Region” Deciduous
“I have two “sub regions”, one that has very low rainfall resulting in poor vegetation and calcification of the soil. The other sub region has more rainfall, creating more vegetation that creates humus, making it some of the best soil in the world” Grassland Region Deciduous
“All of my trees have leaves, not those nasty acidic needles. This means there is a nice layer of humus. Also, hardwoods can be found in my region because the longer summer allows them to hold enough sap for the winter. Deciduous
“I gave the Green Bay Packers the nickname for their field because my region is know for being very cold and dry, allowing for very little vegetation. My soil is frozen pretty much year round. ” Deciduous Tundra
“My name is a dead give away but there is nothing dead about my region. The amount of rainfall as well as the warmer temperatures, support HUGE trees and lush vegetation. ” Deciduous West Coast Forest
“I can’t make up my mind. “Varied” is my claim to fame…it pretty much describes everything about me. ” Deciduous Cordilleran
“You live in my region. The fact that some of my trees have leaves which generate humus means that if you cut my trees down, farming is ideal. ” Deciduous Mixed
“I’m the biggest of the regions which means I’m for real…they call me _____!!!” Boreal Some Deciduous trees grow in my southern most areas. Rainfall and acidic leaching from my pine needles make for poor humus content in the soil. ” Deciduous Boreal