- Slides: 18
Using Quotation Marks
Using Quotation Marks with a Direct Quotation “When I learn to ride, ” said the student, “I’ll use the bridle path every day. ” Direct quotation represents a person’s exact speech or thoughts.
Using Quotation Marks with an Indirect Quotation The student said that when she learns to ride, she plans to use the bridle path every day. An indirect quotation reports the general meaning of what a person said or thought.
Direct Quotations with Introductory Expressions My mother warned, “If you get a horse, you’ll be responsible for taking care of it. ” Commas help you set off introductory information so that your reader understands who is speaking. Use a comma after short introductory expressions that precede direct quotations.
If the introductory tagline is very long or formal in tone, set it off with a colon instead of a comma. At the end of the meeting, Marge spoke of her dreams: “I hope to advance the cause of women jockeys everywhere. ”
Direct Quotations with Concluding Expressions “If you get a horse, you’ll be responsible for taking care of it, ” my mother warned. Concluding expressions are not complete sentences; therefore, they do not begin with capital letters. Closing quotations marks are always placed outside the punctuation at the end of the direct quotations. Concluding expressions general end with a period.
Divided Quotations with Interrupting Expressions “If you get a horse, “my mother warned, “you’ll be responsible for taking care of it. ” Use a comma after the part of a quoted sentence followed by an interrupting conversational tagline. Use another comma after the tagline. Do not capitalize the first word of the rest of the sentence. Use quotation marks to enclose the quotation. End punctuation should be inside the last quotation mark
Divided Quotations with Interrupting Expressions “You own a horse now, ” stated my mother. “You are responsible for taking care of it. ” Use a comma, question mark, or exclamation mark after a quoted sentence that comes before an interrupting tagline. Use a period after the tagline.
Quotation Marks with Other Punctuation Marks Quotation marks are used with commas, semicolons, and all of the end marks. However, the location of the quotation marks in relation to the punctuation marks varies.
Quotation Marks with Other Punctuation Marks “Secretariat was a great horse, ” sighted Mother. We were just informed about his “earthshaking discovery”; we are very pleased. Place a comma or a period inside the final quotation mark. Place a semicolon or colon outside the final quotation mark.
Quotation Marks with Other Punctuation Marks “Larry wondered, “How could I lose the race? ” Place a question mark or an exclamation mark inside the final quotation mark if the end mark is part of the quotation. Do not use an additional end mark.
Quotation Marks with Other Punctuation Marks We were shocked when he said, “Yes” ! Place a question mark outside the final quotation mark if the end is part of the entire sentence, not part of the quotation.
Using Single Quotation Marks for Quotation Marks within Quotations As you have learned, double quotation marks (“”) should enclose the main quotation in a sentence. The rules for using commas and end marks with double quotation marks also apply to single quotation marks.
Using Single Quotation Marks for Quotations within Quotations “I remember Ali quoting Shelley, ‘If winter comes, can spring be far behind? ’” Mike said. “The doctor said, ‘Good news!’” Lainie explained. Use single quotation marks (‘’) to set off a quotation within a quotation
Punctuating Explanatory Material within Quotations The mayor said, “This bridge is a link between two communities (Dover and Flint). ” Use parentheses/brackets to enclose an explanation located within a quotation. The parentheses/brackets show that the explanation is not part of the original quotation
Using Quotation Marks for Dialogue John Mc. Phee wrote an essay about a canoe trip on the St. John River on northern Maine. He introduces his readers to the river in the following way: “We have been out here for days now and rain has been falling three. The rain appears to be ending. Breaks of blue are opening in the sky. Sunlight is coming through, and a wind is rising. “I was not prepared for the St. John River, did not anticipate its size. I saw it as a narrow trail flowing north, twisting through balsam and spruce-a small and intimate forest river, something like the Allagash…” For quotations longer than a paragraph, put quotation marks at the beginning of each paragraph and at the end of the final paragraph.
Using Quotation Marks for Dialogue The sun slowly set over the western edge of the windswept beach as the waves lapped the shore. Charlie sat in the cooling sand talked with his brother about his plans. “I’m going south, ” said Charlie. “I think I’ll like the climate better; you know I don’t like the cold. ” “Have you packed yet? ” asked Roy. “Can I have your snow boots? ” “They are all yours, ” said Charlie. “If I never see them again, it is fine with me. ” When writing a dialogue, begin a new paragraph with each change of speaker.
Using Quotation Marks to Indicate Sarcasm or Irony Dana “forgot” her wallet, so Rita had to pay. (sarcasm) The ferocious dog is named “Fluffy. ” (irony) Words that indicate sarcasm or irony often are not set off by quotation marks. Use quotation marks only to avoid sarcasm or irony being missed or lost altogether, as overuse may minimalize their effect.