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Using End Marks What are end marks? Periods Sentences Abbreviations Question marks Exclamation points Review A Review B
What are end marks? In verbal communication there are lots of ways to help make your meaning clear: • the tone and pitch of your voice • the pauses in your speech • your gestures and expressions In writing, end marks and other punctuation can help the reader understand your meaning.
What are end marks? End marks—periods, question marks, and exclamation points—show where a sentence ends. I want to get plenty of rest this weekend we have a big game Do you want to get plenty of rest this weekend? I want to get plenty of rest this weekend. We have a big game. Or do you have a big game this weekend? I want to get plenty of rest. This weekend we have a big game.
What are end marks? End marks also indicate the purpose of a sentence. Statement I have shoveled all the snow. Question Did you shovel all the snow? Exclamation I finally shoveled all that snow! Command Hurry up and shovel that snow! Request Please shovel the snow soon. [End of Section]
Periods The period is the most common end mark. Periods are used to end • statements • indirect questions • requests and mild commands Periods are also used after most abbreviations.
Periods Sentences A statement ends with a period. We are watching a TV show about whales. The blue whale is the largest animal. Statements are declarative sentences.
Periods Sentences An indirect question ends with a period. An indirect question does not use a speaker’s exact words. An indirect question is a type of statement, or declarative sentence. Indirect question I wonder who won the award. Direct question Who won the award?
Periods Sentences A request or a mild command ends with a period. Request Please clean the birds’ cage. Command Give them fresh food and water. Requests and commands are imperative sentences.
Periods Abbreviations An abbreviation is a shortened version of a word or word group. Periods are used in abbreviations of • personal names • titles • geographical terms • time
Periods Abbreviations Personal names Some people are known by their initials. J. K. Rowling Two initials: Put a space between the initials. J. R. R. Tolkien Three initials: No spaces between the initials. Abbreviate a person’s name only if the person is known by that abbreviation. thethe writer F. Scott Fitzgerald writer F. S. Fitzgerald
Periods Abbreviations Titles Abbreviate social titles before the full name or before the last name alone. Dr. Anne Frears Ms. Agnello Abbreviate civil and military titles if used before the full name (or initials and last name). Spell out if used before the last name only. Sen. Daniel K. Akaka Senator Akaka Gen. Douglas Mac. Arthur General Mac. Arthur
Periods Abbreviations Titles Abbreviate titles and academic degrees that follow proper names. Marco Lopez, Jr. Jeremy Stone, M. D. Rachel Draper, Ph. D.
Periods Abbreviations Geographical terms Abbreviate names of states and political units only in tables, notes, and bibliographies. Spell them out in text. Charlotte, NC Laredo, TX Tucson, Ariz. Santa Fe, NM They live in Charlotte, North Carolina, near the downtown area.
Periods Abbreviations Geographical terms You may abbreviate addresses in letters and on envelopes. Spell out every word of an address in text. Envelope 1492 Columbia Ave. Fort Myers, FL Text Write us at 1492 Columbia Avenue, Fort Myers, Florida.
Periods Abbreviations Time Abbreviate common era designations. = Anno domini, Latin for “in the year of our Lord” 1453 C. E. = Common Era (sometimes used in place of A. D. ) 343 B. C. = Before Christ = Before Common Era (sometimes used in place of B. C. ) A. D. 1556 or or 753 B. C. E.
Periods Abbreviations Time You may abbreviate names of months and days in tables, notes, and bibliographies. In text, spell out the names of months and days. Note Fri. , Feb. 2 Text The conference will begin on Friday, February 2.
Periods Abbreviations Time Abbreviate the designations for the two halves of the day measured by clock time. 10: 45 A. M. 8: 00 P. M. meridiem, Latin phrase A. M. = ante meaning “before noon” P. M. = post meridiem, Latin phrase meaning “after noon”
Periods Abbreviations Units of measurement You may abbreviate units of measurement in tables, notes, and bibliographies. In text, spell out the names of units. Ingredients 6 oz shredded cheese 2 tsp pepper 1 c black beans The recipe calls for six ounces of shredded cheese.
Periods Abbreviations Units of measurement Abbreviations for units of measurement are usually written without periods. centimeter cm ounce oz feet ft tablespoon tbsp Use a period with the abbreviation for inch (in. ) to prevent confusing it with the word in. inch in.
Periods On Your Own Add periods where needed in the following sentences. 1. Sen John Williams gave a press conference today 2. Please send me an e-mail with all the information 3. Archeologists date the artifact to around 1124 BC 4. I wonder which movie we should see 5. The curtain goes up at exactly 7: 30 PM [End of Section]
Question marks A direct question ends with a question mark. Did you get the leading role? When is your first performance? Who will be the stage manager for the play? Questions are also called interrogative sentences.
Exclamation points An exclamation ends with an exclamation point. What an exciting race that was! I can’t stand that noise! Exclamations are also called exclamatory sentences.
Exclamation points A strong command ends with an exclamation point. Hold the elevator! Watch out for that truck! Commands and requests are imperative sentences.
Exclamation points An interjection is often followed by an exclamation point. Yikes! That burner is hot! Hey! Wait for me. An interjection can be followed by a comma instead if it expresses mild emotion. Hey, you’re a great dancer.
Question marks and exclamation points On Your Own Add question marks or exclamation points, as appropriate, to the following sentences. 1. Did the referee call a foul on that play 2. Oh no There’s a fire in the kitchen 3. Hey Don’t run near the pool You’ll hurt yourself 4. I almost fell in the creek Yikes 5. How many hiking trails are there in the Sandia Mountains [End of Section]
Review A In the following sentences, add or replace end marks as needed. If a sentence is already correct, write C. 1. How many years has Maria been working as an electrician. 2. Ouch Watch where you’re going? 3. Nell wondered whether the store was open yet. 4. Mr Stanton kindly gave me a reference? 5. Would you please rake the leaves now! [End of Section]
Review B Add end marks as needed in the following sentences. 1. I think Dr Sanchez has an opening at 8: 00 AM 2. Hey Look out for that tree 3. Please let me borrow your bike 4. 4. Who is in charge of refreshments 5. 5. Paolo wanted to know if I had seen the play yet 6. 6. Will Mr Joseph Wilson, Jr, be the guest speaker [End of Section]