- Slides: 29
US INVOLVEMENT IN WWI
Causes of American Involvement 1. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare 2. British propaganda 3. Zimmerman Telegraph 4. Russian Revolution
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Germany created new submarine called the ”U-Boat” British blockaded North Sea, so Germany gave a “sink on sight” order to any ship approaching Britain May 7 th, 1915 -British passenger liner the “Lusitania” sunk off the coast of Ireland Killed 128 Americans
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Aug. 1915 The Arabic is sunk by the Germans 2 Americans are killed
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare March 1916 The Sussex, an unarmed passenger ship is sunk America threatens to cut off diplomatic relations Sussex pledge- no passenger or merchant ships would be sunk without warning
Zimmerman Telegram March 1917 -British authorities gave to the US a telegram that was supposedly sent to Mexico from Germany It had been decoded by the British It asked Mexico to declare war on the US and they would be supported by Germany
Russian Revolution March 1917 -Russia left WWI due to a Revolution in their own country Germany now would concentrate totally on the Western Front Pleas from Great Britain and France to join the war effort
Declaration of War April 2, 1917 -Wilson asks Congress to declare war on Germany “The World must be made safe for Democracy” April 6 th-Congress votes and declares war
Civil Liberties Espionage Act of 1917 -imprisoned for 20 year if caught inciting a riot or obstructing the draft Sedition Act of 1918 -Prohibited from making disloyal remarks Schneck v. US (1919)-Restriction of civil liberties is ok if it demonstrates a “clear and present danger” to public safety
Minorities Women-Entered the workforce in mass, took the jobs of soldiers fighting in Europe Mexicans-immigrating in mass to get agricultural work in the southwest African-Americans-400, 000 volunteered for the armed services, served in non-combat roles, and in segregated units
Turning the Tide of War British W. in Turkey Churchill, head of British Navy, suggests that Allies should invaded middle east and cut off Austria-Hungry from supply lines. US Enters the War Wilson and America feels that WWI is a European War Lusitania: a passenger ship is sunk in 1915. Zimmermann Telegraph: 1917 German Foreign minister sends message to Mexico suggesting that Mexico join the Central powers. Mexico would receive New Mexico, Texas, Arizona after a German victory April 2, 1917 US declares war on the Central Powers
World War II
World War II After Pearl Harbor, American military leaders focused on halting the Japanese advance and mobilizing the whole nation for war.
Mobilization at Home The war effort required all of America’s huge productive capacity and full employment of the workforce. Government expenditures soared. U. S. budget increases 1940 $9 million 1944 $100 million Expenditures in WWII greater than all previous government budgets combined (150 years) GNP 1939 91 billion 1945 166 million
Restoration of Prosperity World War II ended the Great Depression. Factories run at full capacity Ford Motor Company – one bomber plane per hour People save money (rationing) Army bases in South provide economic boom (most bases in South b/c of climate) The national debt grew to $260 billion (6 times its size on Dec. 7, 1941)
A Grand Alliance The Big Three Great Britain (Winston Churchill) The U. S. (FDR) The Soviet Union (Joseph Stalin) Strategies for War Defeat Germany first
Gloomy Prospects By the end of 1942, the Allies faced defeat. The chain of spectacular victories disguised fatal weaknesses within the Axis alliance: Japan and Germany fought separate wars, each on two fronts. They never coordinated strategies. The early defeats also obscured the Allies’ strengths: The manpower of the Soviet Union The productive capacity of the U. S.
Invasion of the Soviet Union Hitler’s pivotal mistake. On June 22, 1941, Operation Barbarossa 4 million soldiers along 2, 000 mile front German army quickly advanced, but at a terrifying cost. For the next three years, 90 percent of German deaths occurred on the eastern front.
Turning Points of the War: Eastern Front Stalingrad From August 1942 until February 1943 German and Soviet armies fought one of the bloodiest engagements in history. Each side suffered more casualties than the Americans did during the entire war. The Soviets defeated the German army at Stalingrad and then again at the battle of Kursk. The Germans began a long retreat to Berlin.
Atom Diplomacy FDR had funded the top-secret Manhattan Project to develop an atomic bomb Dr. Robert Oppenheimer successfully tested in the summer of 1945. FDR had died on April 12, 1945, and the decision was left to Harry Truman. An amphibious invasion could cost over 350, 000 Allied casualties.
Turning Points of the War: The Pacific August 6, 1945 – Enola Gay drops bomb on Hiroshima 140, 000 dead; tens of thousands injured; radiation sickness; 80% of buildings destroyed August 9, 1945 – Nagasaki 70, 000 dead; 60, 000 injured Emperor Hirohito surrenders on Aug. 14, 1945. (V-J Day) Formal surrender signed on September 2 onboard the battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay
Development of the Cold War The Cold War (1945 -91) was one of perception where neither side fully understood the intentions and ambitions of the other. This led to mistrust and military build-ups. United States U. S. thought that Soviet expansion would continue and spread throughout the world. They saw the Soviet Union as a threat to their way of life; especially after the Soviet Union gained control of Eastern Europe.
Development of the Cold War Soviet Union They felt that they had won World War II. They had sacrificed the most (25 million vs. 300, 000 total dead) and deserved the “spoils of war. ” They had lost land after WWI because they left the winning side; now they wanted to gain land because they had won. They wanted to economically raid Eastern Europe to recoup their expenses during the war. They saw the U. S. as a threat to their way of life; especially after the U. S. development of atomic weapons.
Cold War Mobilization by the U. S. Alarmed Americans viewed the Soviet occupation of eastern European countries as part of a communist expansion, which threatened to extend to the rest of the world. In 1946, Winston Churchill gave a speech at Fulton College in Missouri in which he proclaimed that an “Iron Curtain” had fallen across Europe. In March 1947, U. S. president Harry Truman proclaimed the Truman Doctrine.
The Truman Doctrine (1947) Reasoning Threatened by Communist influence in Turkey and Greece “Two hostile camps” speech Financial aid “to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation” Sent $400 million worth of war supplies to Greece and helped push out Communism The Truman Doctrine marked a new level of American commitment to a Cold War.
The Policy of Containment and the Bay of Pigs Definition - By applying firm diplomatic, economic, and military counterpressure, the United States could block Soviet aggression. Fidel Castro helped to lead the Cuban Revolution in overthrowing the existing government of Cuba in 1959. He was an ardent communist and was allied with the Soviet Union. This deeply concerned the United States as this gave communism and the Soviet Union a foothold in the Americas The results were disastrous for the United States. The government looked weak and the CIA inept. It also seemed to strengthen Castro's government within Cuba and caused him to look to the Soviet Union as a military ally.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) Stalin’s aggressive actions accelerated the American effort to use military means to contain Soviet ambitions. The U. S. joined with Canada, Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg to establish NATO, a mutual defense pact. Pledged signers to treat an attack against one as an attack against all. Counterpart in Eastern Europe – Warsaw Pact
End of War Snags in negotiations Truce talks lasted for two years Truce signed on July 27, 1953 Cost of the war U. S. – 33, 000 deaths and 103, 000 wounded and missing. S. Korean – 1 million N. Korean and Chinese – about 1. 5 million