Urbanization Little Boxes Urbanization Urbanization an increase in

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Urbanization Little Boxes

Urbanization Little Boxes

Urbanization ‣ Urbanization – an increase in the ratio or density of people living

Urbanization ‣ Urbanization – an increase in the ratio or density of people living in urban areas rather than in rural areas ‣ People usually leave rural areas for more plentiful and better paying jobs in towns and cities. ‣ As urban populations have grown, many small towns have grown together and formed large urban areas called metropolitan areas. ‣ An example would be Washington D. C. -Baltimore.

Case Study: Urbanization in the U. S. Ø 8 of 10 Americans live in

Case Study: Urbanization in the U. S. Ø 8 of 10 Americans live in Urban areas. ‣ About 48% of Americans live in consolidated metropolitan areas (bottom map).

Urban Sprawl ‣As they grow and sprawl outward, urban areas merge to form megalopolis.

Urban Sprawl ‣As they grow and sprawl outward, urban areas merge to form megalopolis. ‣Bowash runs from Boston, MA to Washington, D. C.

Urban Sprawl ‣ Urban sprawl – the rapid spread of a city into adjoining

Urban Sprawl ‣ Urban sprawl – the rapid spread of a city into adjoining suburbs and rural areas ‣ Suburbs – housing and associated commercial buildings on the boundary of a larger town

Urban Sprawl ‣ When land is available and affordable, urban areas tend to sprawl

Urban Sprawl ‣ When land is available and affordable, urban areas tend to sprawl outward because: ‣ Federal government loan guarantees stimulated the development of suburbs. ‣ Low-cost gasoline and government funding of highways encourages automobile use. ‣ ‣ Tax-laws encourage home ownership. ‣ Many urban areas lack proper planning. Most zoning laws separate residential and commercial use of land.

Urban Sprawl Urban sprawl in and around Las Vegas, Nevada between 1973 and 2000.

Urban Sprawl Urban sprawl in and around Las Vegas, Nevada between 1973 and 2000. http: //www. theatlanticcities. com/housing/2012/03/40 -years-las-vegassprawl-seen-space/1402/

URBAN RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

URBAN RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

Urbanization Has Advantages Centers of: ‣ Economic development ‣ Innovation ‣ Education ‣ Technological

Urbanization Has Advantages Centers of: ‣ Economic development ‣ Innovation ‣ Education ‣ Technological advances ‣ Jobs ‣ Industry, commerce, transportation

Urbanization Has Advantages Health/Quality of life: Urban residents tend to have ‣ Longer lives

Urbanization Has Advantages Health/Quality of life: Urban residents tend to have ‣ Longer lives ‣ Lower infant mortality ‣ Better medical care ‣ Better social services ‣ More recycling programs Concentrating people in cities can help preserve biodiversity in rural areas

Urbanization Has Disadvantages ‣ Huge ecological footprints ‣ Lack vegetation ‣ Water problems ‣

Urbanization Has Disadvantages ‣ Huge ecological footprints ‣ Lack vegetation ‣ Water problems ‣ Concentrate pollution and health problems ‣ Excessive noise ‣ Altered climate ‣ Light pollution

Urbanization ‣ Heat island – an area in which the air temperature is generally

Urbanization ‣ Heat island – an area in which the air temperature is generally higher than the temperature of surrounding rural areas ‣ Heat is generated by the infrastructure that makes a city run. Roads and buildings absorb and retain heat longer than vegetation does.

Urbanization ‣ Scientists are beginning to see that heat islands can affect local weather

Urbanization ‣ Scientists are beginning to see that heat islands can affect local weather patterns. Hot air rises over a city, cooling as it rises, and eventually produces rain clouds. ‣ In Atlanta, Georgia, and many other cities, increased rainfall is a side effect of the heat island effect.

‣ Light pollution has become a major problem in large cities. ‣ The excess

‣ Light pollution has become a major problem in large cities. ‣ The excess light affects the natural cycles of animals, including humans, and even interferes with astronomical studies. Image: NASA Photo: NASA Light Pollution Light from Earth’s major cities as seen from space. Light pollution from some cities is so great, stars can not be seen at night as the sky is never fully dark

Sound Levels ‣ Noise pollution is becoming a greater problem as people begin to

Sound Levels ‣ Noise pollution is becoming a greater problem as people begin to move into formally unpopulated areas. ‣ Sound is measured in decibels (d. B). ‣ The scale is logarithmic. 30 d. B has ten times more energy than 20 d. B. ‣ Exposure to sound above 85 d. B can cause permanent hearing loss, while pain is experienced above 120 db. B (so turn your earbuds down!!)

The Urban Crisis ‣ Infrastructure – the basic facilities of a country or region,

The Urban Crisis ‣ Infrastructure – the basic facilities of a country or region, such as roads, bridges, sewers, and railroads ‣ Urban crisis – When more people live in a city than its infrastructure can support, the living conditions deteriorate

Urban Decay ‣ Urban decay is a process where a once-functioning city or suburb

Urban Decay ‣ Urban decay is a process where a once-functioning city or suburb falls into disrepair. Lankiveil It is commonly followed by or characterized by high crime rates, unemployment, social disregard, abandoned buildings, and unappealing landscapes. Phillies 1 fan 777

Conventional Land-Use Planning Land-use planning - a set of policies and activities related to

Conventional Land-Use Planning Land-use planning - a set of policies and activities related to potential uses of land that is put in place before an area is developed ‣ ‣ ‣ Encourages future population growth Encourages economic development Revenues: property taxes make up 90% of local government revenue in the U. S. Zoning ‣ ‣ ‣ Problems potential benefits Mixed-use zoning

Urban Planning ‣ Mass transit systems use buses and trains to move many people

Urban Planning ‣ Mass transit systems use buses and trains to move many people at one time. ‣ Mass transit systems save energy, limit the loss of land to roadways and parking lots, reduce highway congestion, and reduce air pollution.

Urban Planning ‣ Open space – land within urban areas that is set aside

Urban Planning ‣ Open space – land within urban areas that is set aside for scenic and recreational enjoyment ‣ Open spaces include parks, public gardens, and bicycle and hiking trails. ‣ Open spaces, especially those with vegetation, reduce drainage problems by absorbing more of the rainwater runoff from building roofs resulting in less flooding ‣ What is a Pervious/permeable surface? ‣ What is a Impervious/impermeable surface?

Conventional and Cluster Housing Developments With a cluster development, houses, town houses, condominiums, and

Conventional and Cluster Housing Developments With a cluster development, houses, town houses, condominiums, and two- to sixstory apartments are built on part of the tract. conventional housing development The rest, typically 30– 50% of the area, is left as open space for wildlife preserves, parks, and walking and cycling paths. cluster housing development Fig. 22 -21, p. 606

Creek Undeveloped land Marsh Fig. 22 -21 a, p. 606

Creek Undeveloped land Marsh Fig. 22 -21 a, p. 606

Typical housing development Fig. 22 -21 b, p. 606

Typical housing development Fig. 22 -21 b, p. 606

Cluster housing development Creek Cluster Pond Fig. 22 -21 c, p. 606

Cluster housing development Creek Cluster Pond Fig. 22 -21 c, p. 606

The Ecocity Concept (Green Cities): Cities for People Not Cars Ecocities or green cities

The Ecocity Concept (Green Cities): Cities for People Not Cars Ecocities or green cities ‣ Build and redesign for people not cars ‣ Use renewable energy resources ‣ Prevent pollution and reduce waste ‣ Recycle, reuse and compost municipal waste ‣ Protect and support biodiversity ‣ Urban gardens; farmers markets ‣ Zoning and other tools for sustainability

Sustainable Cities 1 CA Greenways are walkways or bicycle lanes connecting various places. They

Sustainable Cities 1 CA Greenways are walkways or bicycle lanes connecting various places. They separate pedestrians from traffic and provide quick pedestrian access to different parts of the city. Greenways also provide habitats for wildlife. Disused replanted service lanes and railways can serve as part of these links. 2 Photo: Beyond My Ken CC 3. 0 Farms may no longer be able to supply the food requirements of an increasing population. High-rise buildings may be converted into greenhouses or into indoor livestock raising areas. 1 3 2 3 CA Green belts and green spaces are an important part of city development. They provide habitat for wildlife and recreational areas for people. Areas of undeveloped land act as barriers to urban sprawl.

Sustainable Cities Rooftop gardens are becoming common in many cities. They contribute to the

Sustainable Cities Rooftop gardens are becoming common in many cities. They contribute to the city’s food supply and also help to regulate a building’s temperature. 4 High-speed rail linking all parts of the city provides cost effective and convenient transport. It also reduces congestion and smog. 4 i. Stock 6 New suburbs and housing are being designed in clusters that fit into the natural landscape. Cluster housing leaves areas for the original plants and animals to remain. The design also reduces noise pollution from traffic. 5 7 5 6 CA Solar panels are already used to power street lights, signs, and transport information systems. Mandatory use of solar energy in new buildings will supplement heating and electricity needs. 7

Case Study: The Ecocity Concept in Curitiba, Brazil ‣ 70% of Curitiba’s 2 million

Case Study: The Ecocity Concept in Curitiba, Brazil ‣ 70% of Curitiba’s 2 million people use the bus system. ‣ Only high-rise apartments are allowed near bus routes and devote the bottom 2 floors to stores. ‣ Bike paths run through the city. ‣ Cars are banned from 49 blocks of the city’s downtown.

Case Study: The Ecocity Concept in Curitiba, Brazil ‣ This bus system moves large

Case Study: The Ecocity Concept in Curitiba, Brazil ‣ This bus system moves large numbers of passengers based on its infrastructure: ‣ ‣ ‣ Express lanes for buses only. Double and triple length buses. Extra-wide doors for easy boarding. Figure 23 -1

Case Study: The Ecocity Concept in Curitiba, Brazil

Case Study: The Ecocity Concept in Curitiba, Brazil

Case Study: Hamburg, Germany

Case Study: Hamburg, Germany