Urban transportation planning process
Urban Transportation Planning • Vital to an area’s economic and social health by moving people and goods (sometimes also used to revitalize the economic activity of an area) • Conflicting goals/agenda for areas in the same region, represented by different groups • Funds are limited
Urban transportation planning is a regional process cooperated by all levels of government as required by federal regulation, a political process, and an analytical process
Federal laws require regional transportation planning (long-range planning) for large- and medium-sized urban areas in order to qualify for federal highway and transit funding
Early highway planning • Federal-aid highway act of 1925 • Federal-aid highway act of 1934 • First manual on uniform traffic control devices published by BPR in 1935 • A study of toll roads and free roads in 1937 ordered by President Roosevelt • First version of highway capacity manual in late 1940 s.
After the war • Highway revenue act of 1956: creation of highway trust fund • Federal-aid highway act of 1956 formally kicked off the interstate highway construction program • 1960 s: oppositions to freeways
• Robert Eyre on the history of I-90 planning • William Merry, automobile club of Washington • Ed Banks, Center area resident
The environment and citizen development • Two-hearing process for highway projects – Corridor public hearing before the route location decision was made and was designed for citizens to comment on the need and location of the project – Highway design public meeting on specific location and design features • This was later deemed inadequate and the 3 C planning process required public participation throughout all phases of a planning process
Federal highway act of 1963 (3 C) • Continuing: the need to periodically reevaluate and update a transportation plan • Cooperative: to include not only cooperation between the federal, state, and local levels of government but also among the various agencies within the same level of government • Comprehensive: to include the basic ten elements of a 3 C planning process for which inventories and analyses were required.
Ten basic elements of 3 C process 1. economic factors affecting development 2. population 3. land use 4. transportation factors including those for mass transportation 5. travel patterns 6. terminal and transfer facilities 7. traffic control features 8. zoning ordinance, subdivision regulation, building codes etc 9. financial resources 10. social and community value factors such as preservation of open space, park& recreat. facilities etc
As early as in 1960 s, Steps were defined in a 3 C planning process: • Establish an organization to carry out the planning process • Development of local goals/objectives • Surveys and inventories of existing conditions and facilities • Analysis of current condition and calibration of forecasting techniques • Forecasting of future activities and travel • Evaluation of alternative transportation networks resulting in recommended transportation plan • Staging of transportation plan • Identification of resources to implement the plan
Transit planning • In the early days, transit operators also did transit planning and federal assistance was not available, • Creation of Chicago Transit Authority, Boston’s Metropolitan Transit Authority, and NYC Transit Authority • Urban mass transportation act of 1964
Urban mass transportation act of 1970 • 2 nd landmark in federal financing for mass transportation • Provided long-term federal commitment • Established 2% of the capital funds and 1. 5% of the research funds be set aside to serve the disadvantaged (elderly, handicapped)
Federal-aid highway act of 1973 • Federal-aid funds can be used for capital expenditures on urban mass transportation projects • Funds for highway could be relinquished and replaced by an equivalent amount from the general fund and spent on mass transportation projects • Raised federal share on mass transportation projects to 80% share • Permitted highway funds for bus related facilities such as park and ride • For the first time, urban transp. Planning was funded separately: ½ of 1% of all federal-aid funds
National mass transportation assistance act of 1974 • Authorized for the first time the use of federal funds for transit operating assistance