Urban Sprawl Definition Our textbook definition for urban

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Urban Sprawl

Urban Sprawl

Definition • Our textbook definition for urban sprawl is the rapid, often poorly planned

Definition • Our textbook definition for urban sprawl is the rapid, often poorly planned spread of development from an urban area outward into rural areas.

Metropolitan Area • Metropolitan area is defined as a major population center made up

Metropolitan Area • Metropolitan area is defined as a major population center made up of a large city and the smaller suburbs and towns that surround it. • Today 8 out of 10 people in the United States and Canada live in a metropolitan area. • Suburb is defined as a developed area at the edge of the city that is mostly for housing and businesses. These suburbs are also part of the metropolitan area.

Graphic Organizer pg. 79

Graphic Organizer pg. 79

Urban Core • When talking about a large city like Detroit. The “walkable” part

Urban Core • When talking about a large city like Detroit. The “walkable” part of the city is known as the urban core. • People often think of the urban core as the “downtown” or business district • In the photo people are walking on Woodward Avenue between Comerica Park and the Fox Theatre.

Urban Fringe • As cars were becoming part of American life people began to

Urban Fringe • As cars were becoming part of American life people began to build housing farther away from the urban core. These suburbs formed the urban fringe. • The picture shows an example of an urban fringe city’s downtown area.

Rural Fringe • Beyond the urban fringe lies an area with fewer people. Here,

Rural Fringe • Beyond the urban fringe lies an area with fewer people. Here, small towns mix with farms and open space. These less developed areas form the rural fringe around a metropolitan area. • The rural fringe and urban fringe are all connected by roads, freeway, and highways.

Other definitions we need to know • Land use planning- back in chapter 2

Other definitions we need to know • Land use planning- back in chapter 2 we defined land use as the way people use the land they live on to meet their needs. • For this chapter think of land use planning as the way people figure out the best way to develop the land in the most practical way.

Continued • Zoning ordinances specify whether zones can be used for residential or commercial

Continued • Zoning ordinances specify whether zones can be used for residential or commercial purposes, and may also regulate lot size, placement, bulk (how big it is and the height of certain structures. • Building codes are sets of rules that specify the minimum standards for constructed objects such as buildings and houses.

Facts about Urban Sprawl • Urban Sprawl is all around us. We have grown

Facts about Urban Sprawl • Urban Sprawl is all around us. We have grown accustomed to it because we believe that having stores like Target and Walmart around is normal. • Although it is nice to have everything around us it has some astounding facts surrounding it. • It has cost Americans $87 billion dollars in lost productivity (travel time in between work, shopping is one example of lost productivity) • The cost of living is 18% higher • The pollution per household has gone up 4 times more than usual. • There is a 33% higher risk of obesity

Effects of Urban Sprawl: Traffic • Because people are moving further and further away

Effects of Urban Sprawl: Traffic • Because people are moving further and further away from their jobs, they have further distances to travel. This is a loss of productivity, and also puts a strain on public roads, and on the household budgets because of the cost of repairs to cars and the unstable price of gasoline.

Effects of Urban Sprawl: Cost of living • Even though homes may be cheaper

Effects of Urban Sprawl: Cost of living • Even though homes may be cheaper to purchase, they are more expensive in the sense that people must pay more for transportation and infrastructure (property taxes, city taxes, state taxes). Utilities cost also rise because essentials such as water and electricity must be transported over longer distances.

Pollution • Urban sprawl produces more pollution because it forces everyone to use more

Pollution • Urban sprawl produces more pollution because it forces everyone to use more electricity and resources to live. • According to the article the suburb of Atherton near San Francisco, California has a per-household pollution score more than 4 times than that of downtown San Francisco. • Atherton has a population of around 7, 159 and San Francisco has a population of 837, 442 (2013)

Health • Urban Sprawl effects our health because we spend so much time travelling

Health • Urban Sprawl effects our health because we spend so much time travelling between destinations. • Even though suburbs are usually pedestrian friendly everything is so spread out we are not able to exercise regularly. • Also when we are in the car so much it is easier to eat unhealthy foods like Mcdonald’s or Taco Bell , which can lead to obesity and other health problems.

Solutions to Urban Sprawl: Sustainable Development • Sustainable development is an action plan that

Solutions to Urban Sprawl: Sustainable Development • Sustainable development is an action plan that uses a limited amount of resources so that future generations will be able to survive. • The picture on the right is a model of a sustainable development called mixed-use building. This complex will comprise of a Whole Foods grocery store, 400 apartments, and several other retail stores.

Government Intervention • If private solutions to urban sprawl do not happen, government intervention

Government Intervention • If private solutions to urban sprawl do not happen, government intervention may be required. In 1999 Al Gore proposed a plan to offer tax breaks to communities that preserve green space and find ways to relieve traffic congestion. Even though it doesn’t seem like much. In a world where city budgets are shrinking more money from the government would motivate people to come up with more solutions to slow down urban sprawl.

The case for and against growth • In many cities, a planning commission would

The case for and against growth • In many cities, a planning commission would need to approve the project. This body is made up of citizens chosen to guide a city’s growth. • Urban Growth Creates Needed Homes: Everyone knows that when population grows new homes are needed. The question is where and to what cost to families.

Pros • Generally, a land in rural areas is cheaper than city land. Building

Pros • Generally, a land in rural areas is cheaper than city land. Building costs in the country are lower than city. 1. This keeps new homes affordable. 2. People believe that suburbs are a better place to live than a city. 3. New housing creates jobs for construction workers. 4. As people move into new homes, they spend money on infrastructure. The new homeowners also pay taxes. This helps fund roads, schools, and other city services.

Cons • Even though everyone agrees that houses are needed. People who are against

Cons • Even though everyone agrees that houses are needed. People who are against urban sprawl are thinking about how it effects the environment 1. These people argue that the worst way to meet the need for housing is to develop open spaces outside the city. Open spaces are not empty land they are habitats for plants and animals (pg. 83) 2. When housing is spread out, people rely on cars for transportation. This creates traffic jams (productivity loss) and air pollution. 3. Urban sprawl can also hurt people living in small towns. They often see their taxes go up when nearby land is developed. The extra tax money is needed to pay for roads, schools and other services that are required when small towns grow.