URBAN SPRAWL AND ENERGY INDEPENDENCE by Shauna L

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URBAN SPRAWL AND ENERGY INDEPENDENCE by Shauna L. Fleming shaunalfleming@hotmail. com Energy Law Spring

URBAN SPRAWL AND ENERGY INDEPENDENCE by Shauna L. Fleming [email protected] com Energy Law Spring 2007

Preview • Urban sprawl explained and described • U. S. reliance on foreign oil

Preview • Urban sprawl explained and described • U. S. reliance on foreign oil • Low-density versus high-density development • Impact of transportation policy • Smart growth benefits

How urban sprawl and energy independence relate

How urban sprawl and energy independence relate

 • Urban sprawl - the unplanned, uncontrolled spreading of urban development into areas

• Urban sprawl - the unplanned, uncontrolled spreading of urban development into areas adjoining the edge of a city – decentralized, low-density development makes people almost completely dependent on their cars for transportation – decentralized, low-density development means longer distances between locations – more mileage driven by more cars increases the demand foreign oil

U. S. reliance on foreign oil • U. S. imports 10, 126, 000 barrels/day

U. S. reliance on foreign oil • U. S. imports 10, 126, 000 barrels/day of foreign oil • U. S. transportation sector is over 95% dependent on oil • American drivers consume 9, 159, 000 barrels/day of gasoline – that’s 384. 7 million gallons/day • U. S. has the highest per capita car ownership in the world

Low-density versus high-density land use

Low-density versus high-density land use

Low-density • Suburbs, subdivisions, single family homes, strip malls • Not pedestrian friendly •

Low-density • Suburbs, subdivisions, single family homes, strip malls • Not pedestrian friendly • Heavy reliance on cars • Dispersed, spread out development results in greater distances between destinations • Traffic congestion • Longer commutes – the average American driver currently spends the equivalent of 55 eight-hour workdays driving every year

Low-density cont’d • Loss of open space, farmland wildlife habitat – low-density sprawl destroys

Low-density cont’d • Loss of open space, farmland wildlife habitat – low-density sprawl destroys more than 2 million acres of parks, farms and open space each year • Increased demand on public utilities such as sewer, water, roads and drainage

Low-density = energy inefficiency and increased dependence on foreign oil

Low-density = energy inefficiency and increased dependence on foreign oil

High-density • Dense, compact, mix-use residential and commercial development • Pedestrian friendly communities •

High-density • Dense, compact, mix-use residential and commercial development • Pedestrian friendly communities • Access to integrated, intermodal, comprehensive, convenient public transportation • Preservation of open space by reducing the amount of land needed for cars and roads

High-density = energy efficiency • New York city is the most energy-efficient city in

High-density = energy efficiency • New York city is the most energy-efficient city in the U. S. – lowest per capita energy use

 • New York City has the highest population density of any city in

• New York City has the highest population density of any city in the U. S. with an average of 26, 401 people per square mile – San Francisco has the 2 nd highest population density with 16, 633 people per square mile – Chicago is third with 12, 749 people per square mile • More than 50% of New York households don’t own a car, compared to only 8% nationally • Most residents rely on public transportation and walking to get were they need to go

Transportation and energy use

Transportation and energy use

U. S. transportation policy’s impact on urban sprawl • U. S. transportation policies reinforce

U. S. transportation policy’s impact on urban sprawl • U. S. transportation policies reinforce automobile oriented patterns of development through spending on roads and highways

 • In the 1950 s, the U. S. began to develop the interstate

• In the 1950 s, the U. S. began to develop the interstate highway system • Since then almost 4 million miles of highways have been built with federal funds • This opened up rural areas for suburban development • This has resulted in a diversion of federal funding from public transportation to highways

Disproportionate funding • In the 2004 transportation bill included $217 billion for highways compared

Disproportionate funding • In the 2004 transportation bill included $217 billion for highways compared to $51 billion for public transportation

Implications of federal funding • Disproportionate amount of federal transportation funding goes to rural

Implications of federal funding • Disproportionate amount of federal transportation funding goes to rural and suburban areas versus urban areas – New Jersey gets back just $. 55 to the $1 of taxes it contributes to federal transportation funding – While New Mexico gets $2 to the $1 it contributes

Growing U. S. energy dependency

Growing U. S. energy dependency

Smart growth • Smart growth - an urban planning theory that concentrates growth in

Smart growth • Smart growth - an urban planning theory that concentrates growth in the center of a city to avoid urban sprawl and advocates compact, transit-oriented, walkable, bicycle-friendly land use, including mixeduse development – alternative to conventional suburban development – high-density, mix-use land development with a range of housing choice

Smart growth cont’d • Intermodal, integrated public transit that gives people transportation choices •

Smart growth cont’d • Intermodal, integrated public transit that gives people transportation choices • Comprehensive regional and statewide planning, coordination and investment in transportation systems and land-use objectives • Focus on long range, instead of short range, considerations • Design and plan communities for people not cars

Impacts of Smart Growth • Preservation of open space by reducing the amount of

Impacts of Smart Growth • Preservation of open space by reducing the amount of land required for cars and roads • Human-scale, transit and pedestrian oriented communities encourages people to choose not to drive • Reduces traffic congestion for the smaller numbers of people who still drive • Less people driving cars = less consumption of oil and less dependence on foreign oil

Benefits of public transportation • Public transportation uses about one-half less fuel than driving

Benefits of public transportation • Public transportation uses about one-half less fuel than driving per passenger-mile – “A daily transit user making a 5 -mile trip each way instead of driving a 25 -mile per gallon vehicle would save 100 gallons of gasoline per year costing about $225 (assuming $2. 25 per gallon). ” • Reduces the need for more and bigger highways

Portland, Oregon

Portland, Oregon

Portland’s edge • Regional land use and transportation planning • Transit orientated developments •

Portland’s edge • Regional land use and transportation planning • Transit orientated developments • High-density, residential and business development around light-rail stops and transit centers • Urban growth boundary - regional boundary, set in an attempt to control urban sprawl by designating the area inside the boundary for higher density urban development and the area outside the boundary for lower density rural development

Portland’s urban growth boundary goals • Encourage efficient land use, directing most development to

Portland’s urban growth boundary goals • Encourage efficient land use, directing most development to existing urban areas and along existing major transportation corridors • Promote a balanced, regional transportation system that accommodates a variety of transportation options including bicycling, walking, driving and public transportation • Support the region's goal of building complete, compact communities by providing jobs and shopping close to residential areas • Boundary isn’t static and has been moved to accommodate urban residential growth and industrial need

Political foresight • Back in the 1970's Oregon’s Republican Governor, Tom Mc. Call, took

Political foresight • Back in the 1970's Oregon’s Republican Governor, Tom Mc. Call, took radical steps to prioritize public transport • Mc. Call promoted using federal highway funding to invest in public transportation infrastructure • Mc. Call advocated for proactive land use policies – establishment in 1979 of an urban growth boundary to protect 25 million acres of forest and farmland while encouraging high density urban development

Portland’s regional approach • Metropolitan Service District is the regional governmental agency for the

Portland’s regional approach • Metropolitan Service District is the regional governmental agency for the Portland metropolitan area that covers 25 cities in 3 counties • It is responsible planning of the region’s transportation system – Tri. Met buses and Max light rail • It maintains the Portland-area urban growth boundary

Bicycle use • Bicycle traffic has increased by 257% in Portland over the last

Bicycle use • Bicycle traffic has increased by 257% in Portland over the last 10 years • Strong measures by local government to make the city and region more bike friendly • Including a bike lane that connects the city to the Portland International Airport

Benefits of smart growth • Reduces the need for costly infrastructure, such as additional

Benefits of smart growth • Reduces the need for costly infrastructure, such as additional roads and water and sewer connection • Preserves farmland, open space and wildlife habitat • Reduces cost of transportation and unproductive time spent in traffic

 • Forecasts predict that U. S. foreign oil consumption will continue to increase.

• Forecasts predict that U. S. foreign oil consumption will continue to increase. • Should we build more roads or expand public transportation?

“ [A]llocating more funds towards public transit may. . . be the most effective

“ [A]llocating more funds towards public transit may. . . be the most effective strategy for reducing our dependence on foreign oil. . “

How reducing sprawl through smart growth can impact energy independence

How reducing sprawl through smart growth can impact energy independence

Conclusion

Conclusion

 • Discourage low-density sprawl through high-density smart growth • Shift funding priorities to

• Discourage low-density sprawl through high-density smart growth • Shift funding priorities to public transportation, which uses about one-half the fuel of private cars per passenger-mile traveled • Increased use of public transportation coupled with decreased use of cars will reduce the amount of oil we consume • Less consumption will reduce our overall dependence on foreign oil