University Studies 15 A Consciousness I Brains Brains

  • Slides: 21
Download presentation
University Studies 15 A: Consciousness I Brains

University Studies 15 A: Consciousness I Brains

Brains: More than we can hope to learn Brain Details: What and Why? “Why”

Brains: More than we can hope to learn Brain Details: What and Why? “Why” will lead us to ‘What” We want to know about consciousness as the quality of first-person experience of the world. We want to know about the “I think, ” “I see, ” “I feel. ” “What” we want to know about in the brain is what is important for the creation of this first-person quality.

Some aspects of the brain will not matter that much: The actual biochemistry of

Some aspects of the brain will not matter that much: The actual biochemistry of neuronal firing The actual biology of “long-term potentiation” We will need to know some of the basics of brain structure (i. e. neuroanatomy) We will need to know some of the basics of functional organization (covered in greater detail in later lectures) Today we start with the basics of brain structure

A Final Point about Actual Neurons: Note the myelin sheath surrounding the axon. These

A Final Point about Actual Neurons: Note the myelin sheath surrounding the axon. These glial cells are basically fat. They serve to insulate the axon and make its electrical transmission more efficient. Neurons that have acquired the myelin sheath form the “white matter” of the brain.

Although as “species-ists, ” we are most interested in the human brain, some perspective

Although as “species-ists, ” we are most interested in the human brain, some perspective is useful.

Brain Parts: the Early Version Brain Stem: Much nervous system housekeeping (breathing, heart beat)

Brain Parts: the Early Version Brain Stem: Much nervous system housekeeping (breathing, heart beat) Connects the spinal cord to the brain Cerebellum: Muscle control Olfactory bulb & Optic Lobe: Brain hardware devoted to handling smell and sight

For Humans, same basics + expanded cortex: Let’s follow Baar’s and Gage’s approach and

For Humans, same basics + expanded cortex: Let’s follow Baar’s and Gage’s approach and build from the brainstem up.

The Brainstem, Pons, and Thalami: Pons thalamus

The Brainstem, Pons, and Thalami: Pons thalamus

The Brainstem, Pons, Thalami, Hippocampi, and Amygdalas: amygdala hippocampus

The Brainstem, Pons, Thalami, Hippocampi, and Amygdalas: amygdala hippocampus

Brainstem, Pons, Thalami, Hippocampi, Amygdalas, and Everything Else: White Matter Basal ganglia Cortex Cerebellum

Brainstem, Pons, Thalami, Hippocampi, Amygdalas, and Everything Else: White Matter Basal ganglia Cortex Cerebellum The basic human brain

Another Drawing of the Same Structures + Reticular Formation

Another Drawing of the Same Structures + Reticular Formation

In humans, the cortex grows somewhat slowly:

In humans, the cortex grows somewhat slowly:

More crucial for us are two other aspects of maturation: Dendritic Arborization: the creation

More crucial for us are two other aspects of maturation: Dendritic Arborization: the creation of new dendrites Myelination: the covering of the axons with myelin

The Neocortex is a made of six layers of cells which grows in an

The Neocortex is a made of six layers of cells which grows in an “inside-out” pattern.

The Neocortex is a made of six layers of cells which grows in an

The Neocortex is a made of six layers of cells which grows in an “inside-out” pattern starting with Layer 6. Layer 1: Not many actual cells Mainly dendrites from cells in other layers to allow dense horizontal connections Layers 2 - 3: Horizontal connections (like Layer 1) Axons leading to cells in Layers 4 -6 Layer 4: Most input (axons from White Matter) end here Mainly dendrites from cells in other layers Layers 5 -6: Output neurons to other areas of brain

The Cortex Central Sulcus Terms you might as well learn: Dorsal: Up Ventral: Down

The Cortex Central Sulcus Terms you might as well learn: Dorsal: Up Ventral: Down Lateral: On the side Medial: In the middle Sylvian (Lateral) Fissure Two Major Lines: Central Sulcus Sylvian (Lateral) Fissure The Four Lobes: Occipital Lobe Parietal Lobe Temporal Lobe Frontal Lobe

Functional Organization of the Cortex Motor Cortex Premotor Cortex Prefrontal Cortex Primary Somatosensory Cortex

Functional Organization of the Cortex Motor Cortex Premotor Cortex Prefrontal Cortex Primary Somatosensory Cortex Somatosensory Association Areas Visual Association Areas Primary Visual Cortex Auditory Cortex

On the Two Sides of the Central Sulcus In front of the central sulcus,

On the Two Sides of the Central Sulcus In front of the central sulcus, the motor cortex Behind the central sulcus, the primary somatosensory cortex

“White Matter” Fiber Pathways (Back of the Brain to the Left)

“White Matter” Fiber Pathways (Back of the Brain to the Left)

One Last Neuroanatomical Slide: The Medial Temporal Lobe Structures Limbic Cortex (Paleocortex) goes with

One Last Neuroanatomical Slide: The Medial Temporal Lobe Structures Limbic Cortex (Paleocortex) goes with Limbic System

One Last Neuroanatomical Slide (Really): The Medial Temporal Lobe Structures Anterior Cingulate cortex Parahippocampal

One Last Neuroanatomical Slide (Really): The Medial Temporal Lobe Structures Anterior Cingulate cortex Parahippocampal cortex