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University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology Meat

University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology Meat Hygiene and Technology Meat of chicken from organic production system Ing. Fouad Ali Abdullah, Ph. D.

 • Until the 1920’s, all agriculture was generally organic • It was not

• Until the 1920’s, all agriculture was generally organic • It was not until the Second World War that farming methods changed dramatically. (It was when research on chemicals designed as nerve gas showed they were also capable of killing insects).

 • In 1939, Paul Muller developed DDT, the first of a new class

• In 1939, Paul Muller developed DDT, the first of a new class of insecticides. This led to the outright dismissal of organic farming methods. • In the last few decades, there is an increased awareness of consumers with regard to a healthy diet and its contribution to decrease the risk of some diet-related diseases such as obesity and cardiovascular diseases

 • an idea grew among consumers, about the link between health and environmental

• an idea grew among consumers, about the link between health and environmental sustainability. • Organic production represents the meeting point of health with environmental sustainability

The purpose of organic agriculture establishment was to improve management of ecological production that

The purpose of organic agriculture establishment was to improve management of ecological production that promotes environmental sustainability biodiversity animal welfare food safety and quality

Definition of Organic production according to council regulation (EC) No 834/2007: is an overall

Definition of Organic production according to council regulation (EC) No 834/2007: is an overall system of farm management and food production that combines best environmental practices, the preservation of natural resources, a high level of biodiversity, the application of high animal welfare standards and a production method in line with the preference of certain consumers for products produced using natural substances and processes.

Organic production worldwide recently

Organic production worldwide recently

 • According to the Soil Association’s Organic Market Report 2013, worldwide sales of

• According to the Soil Association’s Organic Market Report 2013, worldwide sales of organic food and drink reached $63 billion. • In 2011, 37. 2 million hectares of farmland were managed organically. • Europe have 10. 6 million hectares of organic farmland. • The countries with the largest organic areas of form land are Argentina, the US and Australia. • The greatest demand for organic food is in the US and Europe – accounting for more than 90 per cent of sales.

In the Czech Republic • organic agricultural area is 488, 658 hectares (2012) •

In the Czech Republic • organic agricultural area is 488, 658 hectares (2012) • Year 1993: The first national directive for organic farming, including an inspection and certification system, is established, and the national BIO label is introduced. • significant increase in the organic food market. The share of organics in total food and beverage consumption remains below 1 %, and the average per capita consumption in 2011 did not rise above EUR 6. • the Czech organic food market is one of the most advanced among the countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

 • In the Czech Republic, organic farming has its own law (Act No.

• In the Czech Republic, organic farming has its own law (Act No. 242/2000 on organic farming), which came into force in 2001 and remains valid. Decree No. 16/2006 sets out the rules of usage for the national organic logo.

 • The Czech Republic has a national organic logo, the Bio zebra. There

• The Czech Republic has a national organic logo, the Bio zebra. There is a discussion on the future of the Czech logo. With the mandatory use of the organic logo of the EU, the two logos (national and EU) communicate the same information to the consumer. Therefore, it was decided that a national logo should be used only for domestic Czech organic food production. The realisation of this strategy is not finished yet.

 • Today, organic products occupy prime shelf space in the big chain supermarkets.

• Today, organic products occupy prime shelf space in the big chain supermarkets.

Production of chicken meat

Production of chicken meat

Table 1. Indigenous* chicken meat production (million tonnes) Region 2000 2005 2008 2009 2010

Table 1. Indigenous* chicken meat production (million tonnes) Region 2000 2005 2008 2009 2010 2011 2. 8 3. 3 3. 4 3. 7 4 4. 2 4. 5 4. 6 4. 7 4. 9 Americas 27. 1 32. 7 33. 7 35 37. 5 36. 9 38. 8 40 40. 5 42. 1 42. 8 43. 4 44. 3 Asia 18. 6 22. 4 23. 5 25 26. 2 28 29. 2 30. 3 31. 6 32. 2 32. 1 32. 7 33. 1 Europe 9. 5 10. 9 10. 8 11. 6 12. 1 13. 3 13. 9 14. 6 15. 5 16. 1 16. 5 16. 7 17 Oceania 0. 7 0. 9 1 1 1. 2 1. 3 1. 2 1. 3 WORLD 58. 7 70. 3 72. 3 76. 2 80. 7 83. 4 87. 4 90. 6 93. 3 96. 3 97. 5 99 100. 6 84. 5 86. 6 87. 9 89. 3 Africa 2006 2007 2012 2013 2014 E 2015 F 2016 F Broiler meat production (million tonnes) WORLD 50. 1 63. 1 64. 3 68. 3 72. 8 73. 6 78. 2 81. 2 83. 3 *Meat from the slaughter of birds originating in a country, plus the meat equivalent of any such birds exported live. E 2014, F 2015 and F 2016 author's estimates and forecasts for chicken meat, F 2015 and 2016 USDA forecast for broiler meat. Regional figures may not add up to the world totals due to rounding. Sources: FAO for chicken meat, USDA for broiler meat.

Table 10. Poultry meat consumption (kg/person/year) Africa 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

Table 10. Poultry meat consumption (kg/person/year) Africa 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 4. 3 4. 7 4. 8 5. 2 5. 5 5. 6 6. 1 6. 2 4. 4 4. 5 Americas 31. 5 31. 8 32. 8 33. 1 34. 7 34. 1 35. 3 36. 0 37. 1 35. 9 37. 6 38. 5 Asia 6. 6 7. 0 7. 4 7. 6 8. 1 8. 5 9. 0 9. 2 9. 4 Europe 15. 9 17. 8 18. 5 18. 2 19. 0 19. 2 20. 2 21. 3 21. 7 21. 4 21. 7 Oceania 30. 1 32. 2 33. 5 33. 4 35. 6 35. 7 36. 8 35. 4 35. 6 37. 4 42. 1 WORLD 11. 0 11. 2 11. 6 11. 8 12. 0 12. 2 12. 5 13. 1 13. 6 13. 7 14. 1 14. 4 Source: FAO 6. 7

 • Counted organic poultry in 2012 reached to more than 73 million, constituting

• Counted organic poultry in 2012 reached to more than 73 million, constituting 0. 3 % of poultry in the world. The development of organic livestock in EU-28 between 2007 and 2014 indicated that the greatest increase was in poultry production (+83%)

 • In 2017, production of poultry meat from organic system in the Czech

• In 2017, production of poultry meat from organic system in the Czech Republic was 112, 29 tons • while the total poultry meat production reach 251, 6 thousand tons.

The rules of organic production system for poultry including: living conditions, genotypes, feeding, welfare,

The rules of organic production system for poultry including: living conditions, genotypes, feeding, welfare, health and veterinary cares are explained in Commission Regulation (EC) No. 889/2008 which in April 2016 was amended by Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2016/673.

Conditions of organic production system for chicken

Conditions of organic production system for chicken

Living conditions • The buildings of poultry shall have adequate size of exit/entry pop-holes

Living conditions • The buildings of poultry shall have adequate size of exit/entry pop-holes for the birds, with easy access to open air area for at least one third of their life. • Available indoor area for fattening poultry (in fixed housing) is 10 birds/m 2 with a maximum of 21 kg live weight/m 2, while outside area shall be 4 broilers per m 2 (Regulation (EC) No 889/2008).

Outdoor access and feeding • Organic feed of poultry should be raised without synthetic

Outdoor access and feeding • Organic feed of poultry should be raised without synthetic fertilizers and pesticides also pastures in free range area provided to birds must be organic. • Feed from genetically modified organisms (GMO), slaughter by-products, chemical therapeutic products, growth promoters, synthetic amino-acids, antibiotics are not permitted in organic feed.

 • Outdoor access represents the mean characteristic of organic system that provides poultry

• Outdoor access represents the mean characteristic of organic system that provides poultry possibility to free-range area with fresh grass and ingestion of insects and worms that could lead to improve product quality. • Available pasture in organic and free-rage systems may contribute and be a source of energy and protein for chicken as well as provide a range of bioactive substances including antioxidants, anticarcinogenic and hypocholesterolemic compounds.

Genotypes and hybrids • Regulation (EC) No 889/2008 emphasize that to prevent intensive rearing

Genotypes and hybrids • Regulation (EC) No 889/2008 emphasize that to prevent intensive rearing methods, organic system prefers slow-growing poultry strains, or poultry shall be reared until they reach a minimum age which it’s 81 days. • The EC Regulation 834/ 2007 recommended the usage of indigenous breeds of birds due to their higher rusticity and ability to utilize outdoor pastures. • These hybrids of bird have a slow-growing rate, more adaptable to outdoor conditions, resistance to diseases and show a higher vitality

Details of the chicken production systems type of bird genotype slaughter raised area outdoor

Details of the chicken production systems type of bird genotype slaughter raised area outdoor price age day kg/m 2 range Euro/kg organic slow-growing 81 21 yes 7 conventional Fast-growing 38 39 no 3

§ the characteristics of organic chickens were affected by the conditions of organic rearing

§ the characteristics of organic chickens were affected by the conditions of organic rearing system conditions I II age o 81 days genotype o slow-growing III Welfare o outdoor access o high physical activity o possibility of natural feeding o minimizing stress factors o changeable weather (natural conditions) 26

High physical activity and the larger energy expenditures related to thermoregulation of organic production

High physical activity and the larger energy expenditures related to thermoregulation of organic production led to lower yield of eviscerated carcass. e. g. organic chicken carcass e. g. classic chicken carcass

The increase of breast yield, which is the result of fastgrowing genotype, leads to

The increase of breast yield, which is the result of fastgrowing genotype, leads to decrease yield of other chicken parts. e. g. thighs of classic chickens e. g. thighs of organic chickens

More usage of wings by chickens promotes an increase of bone and muscle masses.

More usage of wings by chickens promotes an increase of bone and muscle masses. e. g. wings of classic chickens e. g. wing of organic chickens

 • More yellow color (higher b*) is due to use of organic corn

• More yellow color (higher b*) is due to use of organic corn in their nutrition and plant material that contains abundant carotenoid pigments, which is not common in conventional production system. • Breast muscles of conventional chicken were more yellow than organic, which could be due to their higher lipid content and intramuscular storage of lipophilic pigments.

 • Greater motor activity of organic poultry effected the tenderness of thigh meat,

• Greater motor activity of organic poultry effected the tenderness of thigh meat, leading to decrease tenderness. • Older birds (slow-growing) are more mature and have more cross-linking of collagen and so that have lesser tender meat.

 • The higher protein content in organic chicken meat on one side and

• The higher protein content in organic chicken meat on one side and lesser fat content on another side are supporting the idea that motor activity prefers myogenesis against lipogenesis.

Antioxidants • Chickens of free-range rearing system have chance to obtain many bioactive substances

Antioxidants • Chickens of free-range rearing system have chance to obtain many bioactive substances (e. g. , PUFA, vitamins, and pigments) from the pasture that could be reflected on the meat properties. • High levels of tocopherols, tocotrienols, carotenoids, vitamin C, and polyphenols in green forage which are acquired by chicken could improve oxidation status in meat. • The conventional poultry rearing systems do not provide outdoor grazing areas for chicken.

Antioxidants • Grass consumption by organic chickens in free range area improved the amount

Antioxidants • Grass consumption by organic chickens in free range area improved the amount of alpha-tocopherol and carotenoids in their meat and thus increased antioxidant capacity. • It is found that the meat of organic birds with outdoor access to pasture had higher levels of antioxidants (mainly tocopherols and tocotrienols) compared to indoor birds.

Thank you for attention

Thank you for attention