Universal Precautions & General Safety Guidelines
Standards set by OSHA in 1991 (Occupational Safety Health Administration) This required training applies to all who may reasonably be expected to come into contact with blood, body fluids or other potentially infectious materials on the job. Establishes practices for protection of employees
What is your agency’s infection control plan? What safety measures are in place? What work practices should you follow? What personal protective equipment should you use? What housekeeping practices are in place? You can get Hep B vaccine, medical counseling, followup (post-exposure) You will receive annual training.
What is a blood borne pathogen? A microorganism present in blood or bodily fluids that can infect and cause disease.
What and How? What are the most common blood borne pathogens we are concerned about? q Hepatitis B, C and HIV How are these pathogens spread? q By exposure to blood or other bodily fluids that may contain blood
Tell me about Hepatitis B Inflammation of the liver caused by the Hepatitis B virus. It is spread through sexual contact, IV drug use, blood transfusions or exposure to infected blood. Symptoms may develop 4 -6 months after exposure. ** Prevention is the key. To protect yourself use universal precautions and get the Hepatitis B vaccine.
How can I get the vaccine? Your agency can provide this vaccine free. It is administered in 3 doses over several months. If you have already had the vaccine in the past, you can obtain a test to see if you are still immune to Hepatitis B.
What is Hepatitis C? A major cause of chronic liver disease. It is also spread like Hepatitis B. There is NO vaccine available. It increases your risk for cirrhosis and liver cancer.
Which Fluids? Which bodily fluids are potentially infectious? q Blood q Urine q Feces q Saliva q Open wounds q Semen and Vaginal secretions. NOT perspiration(sweat) or tears!
Which Fluids? When one of these fluids come into contact with “broken” skin. q Cuts q Rashes q Hangnails q Piercings or open surface like q Eyes q Mouth q Nose q Mucous membrane An infection may occur.
What Are Universal Precautions? Safety measures that are used to prevent harmful bacteria and viruses (pathogens) from infecting people who provide first aid, personal or health care. It is important that DSPs use universal precautions – it helps to protect everyone! IT IS IMPORTANT THAT YOU USE UNIVERSAL PRECAUTIONS!
What are the Safety Measures? Appropriate Hand Washing & Personal Hygiene Disposal/Care of Contaminated Items (like needles, clothing, bedding, tissues, bandages, etc. ) Engineering Controls Hepatitis B vaccination
When should we use Universal Precautions? ALWAYS…. when you are providing care and coming into contact with certain bodily fluids. Treat ALL these fluids as if they were infectious, regardless of what you know about the person. This is what “universal” means!!
Hand Washing When you wash your hands properly, you wash away bacteria and viruses that you have picked up from the environment. Washing your hands properly will prevent the spread of pathogens, thus avoiding illness.
Proper method of Hand Washing Wet your hands with warm water and apply soap; Scrub your hands together briskly; get under fingernails and between fingers; Wash for 10 -15 seconds (“A, B, C’s” or “Happy Birthday” one time through); Dry hands thoroughly with a clean paper towel; Use the towel to turn off the faucet and open the door!
When Do You Wash Hands? Before and after preparing food Before and after eating Before and after providing direct care After cleaning After using the bathroom After touching pets After blowing your nose **Be mindful that there may be more times when you need to wash your hands**
Personal Protective Equipment Use these according to your agency policy: Gloves Gowns/Aprons Protective Eyewear Masks/Face Shields These are to protect YOU and the people you support.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Gloves are the most commonly used protective equipment. They should be used: q q q To avoid contact with blood or other body fluids When handling contaminated items (e. g. laundry with urine or fecal soiling) When there are open cuts, scratches or wounds on the person you are supporting or on your own hands
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Be sure to wash your hands before and after you use gloves. Gloves serve as a protective measure, but you still have the responsibility to perform proper care. Gloves should be changed every time you come in contact with a new person or activity.
Disposal/Care of Contaminated Items Discard of contaminated needles or other sharp instruments in appropriate containers Dispose of used items (napkins, tissues, hand sanitizing cloths) or wash used items (towels, wash cloths) Do not share personal care items (towels, wash cloths)
Disposal/Care of Contaminated Items Soiled Linen Should be bagged and transported in a manner to prevent leakage and contamination of DSP’s clothing Sort linen before washing; use gloves to sort The settings on household washing machines are sufficient to kill most common bacteria Use additives at the appropriate amounts for adequate wash and care
What to do if there is an exposure Immediately wash/rinse the exposed body part with soap and warm water for sixty seconds. If necessary, flush eyes with clean running water. Provide immediate first aid if it is necessary Tell someone! (according to your agency policy). You may need to be tested/treated. Clean the environment with an appropriate disinfecting solution, such as ten parts water to one part bleach. Bleach will kill both HIV and hepatitis B virus. (Or, your agency may have another product that you should use) v After cleaning, promptly disinfect mops and any other cleaning equipment, or you may spread the viruses to other areas.
Other Communicable Diseases -not blood borne Communicable diseases spread from person to person. You may hear them referred to as contagious or infectious diseases as well. One example is Tuberculosis. You must obtain an annual PPD to demonstrate that you do not have TB. Other examples: colds, flu.
Tuberculosis Caused by bacteria that are spread through the air by infectious particles. These bacteria infect the lungs. Active TB requires antibiotic treatment for a year Latent TB means that someone has the infection but is NOT infectious.
When preparing food: Wash hands to prevent food contamination. Keep foods out of the danger zone! (41 F – 135 F) Bacteria grow FASTER in that range! Don’t defrost meat on the counter! Avoid cross-contamination Pick up utensils by handles only
Emergency!! Disaster!! How to prepare?
Emergencies! Being prepared in a person-centered way The needs of each person in an emergency are unique. In order to provide the best, most individualized care…. PEPP: Each person has a Personal Emergency Preparedness Plan CEPP: Each agency has a Comprehensive Emergency Preparedness Plan
Fire Safety Did you know that 80% of fire deaths occur in the home due to: The components that make fire are: Heat Cooking Fuel Smoking Oxygen Heating
Fire Safety To avoid fire, use… Surge protectors; extension cords are not recommended and should never be used as primary wiring Space heaters only when there are 3 feet of space around them Safe smoking practices
Fire Safety To avoid fire, check… that cooking appliances are turned off after use cords on electric appliances: check for damage; unplug appliances when not in use that smoke alarms are tested and batteries changed as required the fire extinguishers are charged and inspected as required
Use of Fire Extinguisher Use for small fires only! Be mindful that they differ kinds of fire extinguishers based on contents and purpose Operate using P. A. S. S. Do not throw water on grease fires REMEMBER TO CALL 911
Use of Fire Extinguisher P. A. S. S. q Pull the pin q Aim q Squeeze q Sweep
Drills & Evacuation Know your agency’s policy for fire drills. Know your agency’s evacuation plan Know two ways to exit Mark accessible windows Where is the “Area of Rescue or Meeting Place” outside the home?
Escape Procedures Get low Get out fast Do not return inside of the house If fire gets on your clothing, STOP, DROP and ROLL Contact 911 from another location Make sure the people you support are evacuated.
Back Safety Depending on the duties of your job, you may be required to lift heavy items or help to transfer a person from one place to another. As a reminder, take care of your back and spine!!
Back Safety Safe Lifting When lifting any heavy item, do not bend forward and lift. This will place pressure on your back and spinal cord and cause injury.
Back Safety Safe Lifting In order to lift correctly, bend at the knees, wrap your arms around the person or item and lift with your knees!!