- Slides: 15
UNITY - DEFINITION • The quality of oneness in a paragraph / essay that results when all the words / sentences contribute to a single effect or main idea. • It is the “sticking to one idea from start to finish”, with every sentence contributing to the central purpose and main idea of that
No “useless” sentences are used – everything has a purpose and ties back to the beginning. Topic Sentence Supporting Sentence(s) Directly relates to topic! Concluding Sentence Directly relates back to support and topic!
SUMMARY An essay is unified when all of its paragraphs relate directly to its thesis statement. A paragraph is unified when all of its sentences relate directly to its topic sentence.
COHERENCE - DEFINITION When sentences and ideas are connected and flow together smoothly. • • An essay without coherence can prevent a reader’s ability to understand the ideas and main points of the essay. Coherence allows the reader to move easily throughout the essay from one idea to the next, from one sentence to the next, and from one paragraph to the next.
METHODS OF ACHIEVING COHERENCE P. P. T. R. = Prickly Pears Taste Rancid
PRONOUN REFERENCE • The use of pronouns (he, she, it, them, etc. ) in one sentence to refer to a noun in a previous sentence. • Example: The man in the black hat winked at the students. He is evil, I tell you – evil! He just couldn’t help them.
PARALLEL STRUCTURE / PARALLELISM • Giving all items presented in a sequence the same grammatical form. • Example: Surprised, Peter leaped from the bed, inserted his Dracula fangs, and ran out the door.
TRANSITIONS (LEXICAL SIGNS) • Words or phrases which help to achieve carry-over within sentences, between sentences, and between paragraphs. There are 3 types of Transitions: -Logical (logical manner: however, in addition, as a result …) -Spatial (deals with location: to the left of, behind, below …)
REPETITION • Sometimes repeating a key word can emphasize/focus your ideas. • Synonyms are words that have essentially the same meaning, and can provide some variety in your word choices, helping the reader to stay focused on the idea being discussed. • Example: Violence is becoming dominant in our school yards. Fighting has become an issue for teachers at every level. Physical altercation has, in cases, led to broken bones.
SUMMARY An essay is coherent when all of its paragraphs are written clearly, logically, and in a manner that is easy to follow. A paragraph is coherent when all of its sentences are written clearly, logically, and in a manner that is easy to follow.
SOMETIMES WHAT WE WRITE ISN’T WHAT WE MEAN… Lacking Unity and Incoherent – does NOT say what we mean For me, the worst thing about waiting tables was the uniform. All the waitresses had to wear this ugly brown striped sweater. The shirts were polyester. Sometimes someone you know comes in. Now I have a job in an office. Unified and Coherent – says what we mean. For me, the worst thing about waiting tables was the uniform. At the last place I worked, all the waitresses had to wear an ugly brown striped sweater. Underneath it we had to wear an even uglier polyester shirt. Sometimes someone I knew would come in and I’d feel embarrassed by my outfit. Now I have a job in an office, where