United Nations Climate Change Conference Nairobi Kenya 6

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United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Environmentally Sound Technologies

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Environmentally Sound Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change Richard J. T. Klein Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden UNFCCC Side Event on Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change, 8 November 2006

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Outline • Background

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Outline • Background to the Technical Paper • The process of adapting to climate change: a framework for analysis and policymaking • Examples of technologies for adaptation • Lessons learnt UNFCCC Side Event on Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change, 8 November 2006

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Mandate • SBSTA-20

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Mandate • SBSTA-20 requested the Secretariat to: • Organise a seminar on the development and transfer of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs) for adaptation to climate change, • Prepare a technical paper on the applications of of ESTs for adaptation to climate change. • The seminar took place in Tobago in June 2005. A background paper was prepared as input and as starting point for the technical paper. UNFCCC Side Event on Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change, 8 November 2006

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Context • EGTT’s

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Context • EGTT’s programme of work for 2004 included an action aimed at encouraging the development of ESTs, in particular technologies for adaptation to climate change. A scoping paper was prepared by the EGTT chair. • The decision to initiate a programme of work on adaptation (1/CP. 10) emphasises technology transfer for adaptation on an urgent basis in priority sectors. UNFCCC Side Event on Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change, 8 November 2006

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Scope • The

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Scope • The technical paper aimed to provide an overview of: • Current knowledge and understanding of adaptation, • A framework for assessing technologies for adaptation, • The process of technology development and transfer as relevant to adaptation, • Examples and case studies of important technologies for adaptation, • A discussion of implications for climate policy. UNFCCC Side Event on Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change, 8 November 2006

UNFCCC Side Event on Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change, 8 November 2006

UNFCCC Side Event on Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change, 8 November 2006

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Adaptation • “Adjustment

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Adaptation • “Adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities. Various types of adaptation can be distinguished, including anticipatory and reactive adaptation, private and public adaptation, and autonomous and planned adaptation”. (IPCC TAR, 2001) UNFCCC Side Event on Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change, 8 November 2006

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Examples of adaptation

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Examples of adaptation options Anticipatory Reactive · Changes in length of growing season · Changes in ecosystem composition · Wetland migration Private · Purchase of insurance · Construction of house on stilts · Redesign of oil rigs · Changes in farm practices · Changes in insurance premiums · Purchase of air-conditioning Public Natural Systems · Early-warning systems · New building codes, design standards · Incentives for relocation · Compensatory payments, subsidies · Enforcement of building codes · Beach nourishment Human Systems UNFCCC Side Event on Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change, 8 November 2006

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Why is adaptation

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Why is adaptation important now? • Climate change cannot be totally avoided. • Anticipatory adaptation is likely to be more effective and less costly than last-minute, emergency adaptation or retrofitting. • Climate change may be more rapid and pronounced than currently suggested. Surprises are possible. • Immediate benefits can be gained from better adaptation to climate variability and extreme events, as well as by removing maladaptive policies and practices. UNFCCC Side Event on Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change, 8 November 2006

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 The process of

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 The process of adaptation Climate variability Mitigation Climate change Impacts Planning, Design Information, Awareness Response Implementation Monitoring, Evaluation Existing management practices Other stresses Policy criteria Development objectives Adaptation UNFCCC Side Event on Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change, 8 November 2006

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Technology • “A

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Technology • “A piece of equipment, technique, practical knowledge or skills for performing a particular activity”. (IPCC SRTT, 2000) UNFCCC Side Event on Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change, 8 November 2006

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Technologies for adaptation

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Technologies for adaptation • Society has a long history of coping with and preparing for extreme weather events and climate variability. Many technologies therefore exist to address climate hazards, but not everybody has knowledge of or access to these technologies. • Existing technologies vary from hard to soft, from simple to highly complex, from inexpensive to unaffordable, and from locally available to requiring technology transfer. UNFCCC Side Event on Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change, 8 November 2006

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Barriers to implementation

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Barriers to implementation • Implicit in much of the discussions and negotiations to date is the assumption that there are no constraints on implementing the adaptation options identified. • The extent to which institutions and mechanisms are in place and technologies, human and other resources are available to collect information, raise awareness, plan and design adaptation options and implement them successfully is an important factor determining the success of adaptation. UNFCCC Side Event on Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change, 8 November 2006

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 The process of

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 The process of adaptation Climate variability Climate change Impacts Technologies to implement adaptation Technologies to facilitate implementation Planning, Design Information, Awareness Mitigation Response Implementation Monitoring, Evaluation Existing management practices Other stresses Policy criteria Development objectives Adaptation UNFCCC Side Event on Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change, 8 November 2006

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Information and awareness

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Information and awareness • Coastal system description (maps, tide gauges, buoys, remote sensing, surveys). • Climate impact and coastal hazard assessment (scenarios, models, place-based analysis, analogues). • Awareness raising (printed information, audio-visual media, interactive tools). UNFCCC Side Event on Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change, 8 November 2006

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 UNFCCC Side Event

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 UNFCCC Side Event on Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change, 8 November 2006

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Planning and design

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Planning and design • Simulation tools (sediment budget models, economic models). • Decision tools (cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, multi-criteria analysis). • Integration tools and frameworks (e. g. , APF, NAPAs). • Cross-cutting technology: geographical information systems. UNFCCC Side Event on Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change, 8 November 2006

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 UNFCCC Side Event

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 UNFCCC Side Event on Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change, 8 November 2006

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Implementation • Protect:

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Implementation • Protect: decrease probability of occurrence (e. g. , dikes, seawalls, beach nourishment). • Retreat: limit potential effects (e. g. , establishing set-back zones, relocating threatened buildings). • Accommodate: increase society’s ability to cope with the effects (e. g. , emergency plans, insurance, modification of land use and agricultural practices). UNFCCC Side Event on Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change, 8 November 2006

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 UNFCCC Side Event

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 UNFCCC Side Event on Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change, 8 November 2006

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Monitoring and evaluation

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Monitoring and evaluation • Similar technologies as for coastal system description, in combination with an evaluation framework (requires development and agreement on indicators and criteria). UNFCCC Side Event on Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change, 8 November 2006

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Lessons learnt (1)

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Lessons learnt (1) • Adaptation is a process that comprises more than the implementation of some hardware; it also explicitly includes facilitating this implementation. The process of adaptation begins and ends with information development. • Successful adaptation involves action by a range of stakeholders operating from local to global scales. Technology application and transfer is relevant on each scale. UNFCCC Side Event on Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change, 8 November 2006

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Lessons learnt (2)

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Lessons learnt (2) • Many potentially very effective technologies for adaptation to climate change are simple, inexpensive and locally available. • R&D is still required to improve the efficiency and costeffectiveness of existing technologies, as well as to develop new technological solutions. • Technology can be very important in reducing vulnerability to climate change, but it can also introduce new risks. Moreover, its effectiveness depends on the economic, institutional, legal and socio-cultural contexts. UNFCCC Side Event on Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change, 8 November 2006

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Thank you very

United Nations Climate Change Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 -17 November 2006 Thank you very much for your attention. richard. [email protected] se UNFCCC Side Event on Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change, 8 November 2006