- Slides: 23
Unit 4. 3 - Political Power and Territoriality
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American Indians Reservations FRQ (4. 3 PSO 4. 2. C and 4. 1 PSO 4. A. 2) Use the map on slide 4 and the short readings on slides 5 -19 to help you answer the FRQ question below. 1. Identify where most Native Americans live in the United States. 2. Explain why so few Native American reservations are east of the Mississippi River. 3. Describe what rights Native Americans have with regards to the land they control. 4. Explain the relationship between the Native American tribes and the state governments in which their tribal land is located. 5. Explain what is meant by the term “American Indian. ” 6. Compare the terms American Indian and Native American. Explain which term is the more appropriate to use when referring to people native to the United States. 7. Explain how the Native Americans have been impacted economically by the tax agreements it has with the United States governments. Identify an example of what is allowed on the Native American land that may not be allowed in the state in which the reservation is located.
Why does this map not match up with the gambling that occurs in many states, e. g. , Oklahoma?
Native American gaming comprises casinos, bingo halls, and other gambling operations on Indian reservations or other tribal land in the United States. Because these areas have tribal sovereignty, states have limited ability to forbid gambling there, as codified by the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988. As of 2011, there were 460 gambling operations run by 240 tribes, with a total annual revenue of $27 billion.
The federal and state governments are not allowed to charge taxes on the tribe’s activities. This means that the casinos don’t need to pay taxes to the federal or state governments, although there are usually still compacts and stipulations that see casinos paying local counties or states a portion of the profits. When they pay out funds as salaries or profit sharing to tribes members, that income is taxable. Similarly, when you win at an Indian casino, you’ll get a W-2 G. Casinos can issue win/loss statements using your loyalty card transactions to help when you’re filing your taxes, too.
Cherokee Principal Chief Bill John Baker sounded a similar note in a prepared statement. "Gaming dollars have allowed us to expand upon the services available to Cherokee citizens while putting our people to work, " Baker said. "That money has helped provide more elders with eyeglasses and dentures, more classroom space for our children and more opportunities for our people to live, work and play near their families. "
While Oklahoma had more gaming facilities than any other state, Meister's report says many of the state's facilities were relatively small travel centers, gas stations, convenience stores and smoke shops with gaming, instead of dedicated casinos. Some 48 percent of the state's tribal gaming facilities had fewer than 300 gaming machines and 19 percent had fewer than 100, he reports. Oklahoma has 113 tribal casinos, more than any other state in the U. S. In 1998 the IRS issued Notice 98 -45 which established the boundaries of the Former Indian Reservations in Oklahoma. For tax purposes, current and former lands owned by Indian tribes are treated as if they are an Indian reservation, regardless of current ownership. Approximately 2/3 of the State of Oklahoma is treated as if it were an Indian reservation for tax purposes