Unit 3 Principles of Business Communication and Information
What is negotiation in the business environment? Negotiation is the process of two individuals or groups reaching a joint agreement about differing needs of ideas. General: Bargaining (give and take) process between two or more parties (each with its own aims, needs, and viewpoints) seeking to discover a common ground and reach an agreement to settle a matter of mutual concern or resolve a conflict
Why is negotiation important in the business environment? Negotiation in business allows you to: Understand the perspective of others Helps to resolve conflict Understand cultural differences Reach and agreement and achieve compromise Fair process Produce effective business relationships Smooth running of an organisation Efficient business Develop strategy
What are the two approaches to negotiation? Disruptive (competitive approach) A disruptive negotiation usually involves people who have never had a previous interactive relationship, nor are they likely to do so again in the near future. Simple everyday examples, would be when we're buying a car or a house. Integrative (collaborative approach) Integrative means to join several parts into a whole. Conceptually, this implies some cooperation, or a joining of forces to achieve something together. Usually involves a higher degree of trust and a forming of a relationship. Both parties want to walk away feeling they've achieved something which has value by getting what each wants. Ideally, it is a twofold process.
What are the features of disruptive negotiation? Competitive Parties interests are opposing Inflexible Use of manipulation Concealing information What are the uses of disruptive negotiation? Gaining a competitive advantage Maximising own interest Disruption of competitors.
What are the features of integrative negotiation? Collaborative Creating value Interests are aligned Compromise is sought Flexible Cooperative Information shared mutual problem solving What are the uses of integrative negotiation? Maximising joint outcomes All parties are ‘happy’ with the outcome Building relationships and trust Positive approach.
Components of negotiation tactics. What do you feel are needed in preparation of a negotiation? Ø Resources Ø Data and facts Ø Common ground Ø Organisational policies and procedures Ø Legal and ethical requirements Ø Establishing priorities Ø Establishing barriers
Negotiation styles Accommodating Individuals who negotiate with an accommodating style put great value and emphasis on preserving the relationship. Great style when in negotiation with a recurring party however, it is less ideal to use when chances are high you will only negotiation once with this party. Avoiding Used by parties who dislike negotiation and tend to avoid it. When trapped in a negotiation, parties will tend to concede swiftly and have little initiative. This can be viewed as diplomatic. The downside is that avoiding parties will not be very likely to obtain a satisfactory result in the negotiation. Collaborating parties tend to enjoy coming to creative solutions during negotiation. This can potentially lead to positive results or transform simple problems into difficult solutions. Either way, parties that prefer a collaborating style make a real effort to understand the issues of the opposing party of the negotiation. Competing Individuals who prefer the competing style of negotiation see negotiation as a game that must be won at any cost. It is an ideal style when dealing with negotiation where lasting relationships are not very important. However, when preservation of the relationship is an issue, the competing style of negotiation is less suited. Compromising Parties that value fair and equal deals in negotiation tend to prefer the compromising style. This style tends to get fast results from a negotiation. A pitfall of this style is that concessions often come too fast, without properly discovering the underlying issues.
Negotiation style quiz Complete the quiz and mark your negotiation style based on the Stellar Leadership quiz.
What behaviours do you think are important in negotiating? Tact Diplomacy Awareness of body language Effective listening Assertiveness Persuasiveness What information is likely to be exchanged? Focus Goals Proposals
Dragons Den Watch the clip of Dragons Den and make notes on the following The proposal The information provided The body language of the proposer The body language of the Dragons What do you think of the pitch as a whole How well did the Dragons and proposer negotiate? Where they successful in achieving a mutual agreement? Dragons Den
Bespoke Documents What is a bespoke business document? Bespoke documents are company specific documents that are designed to create a corporate image and increase brand awareness. They must be factually correct and professional. They must comply with all relevant legislation and regulations. What examples of bespoke business documents can you think of? forms handbooks specifications for products or services publicity materials questionnaires spreadsheets databases slideshows presentations
What characteristic do bespoke documents need? Logo Professional style Fit for purpose Consistent house style Appeal to potential customers Security in editing Distinct from competitors Maintains reputation of organisation
Creating bespoke business documents When you are designing the documents, make sure that you know what the purpose of the document is and consider the following questions: Who is the audience for my document? What style, content and format should I use? Does the document incorporate the organisation’s corporate aims/mission? Will the document achieve what I want it to do?
Example bespoke documents In groups of 3 choose one of the example business documents to critique. You need to identify: Corporate factors Resources that will have been used The ease of use of the document
Factors to be taken in to account Corporate factors Resources available Ease of use Professional image Software Needs of the user Branding Hardware Layout and style Use of text Staff Fit-for-purpose Use of non-text Costs File format Clarity Paper Security Design Consistency Legislation Timescales Other factors can include Limit to authority, review and feedback, proof-reading, spelling and grammar. , accuracy
What legal requirements need to be considered when creating bespoke documents? Data Protection Act 1998 Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 Remit and limits of research Recording sources
Task You have been asked to create a leaflet that covers the basics of who your organisation are and what they do. Consider all of the information that you would need before, during and after you have created this document.
Techniques used for creating bespoke documents A brief of the document – what are the requirements Research carried out – sources of information. Planning research, conducting research, recording research Providing design options – knowledge and supplication of legislation, effective use of software, appropriate document type. Document size and style, accurate data input, image size and quality Approval of document – checking and proofreading, editing skills. Consultation, feedback, approval.
What methods can be used to gain approval. Methods Face-to-face meetings On-line meetings Conference calls Use of technology – sharing documents, editing documents, tracking changes Stages of approval Initial proposal Draft versions Edited versions Agreement of changes Final approval.
What is an information system An Information System (IS) is a system composed of people and computers that processes or interprets information. The term is also sometimes used in more restricted senses to refer to only the software used to run a computerised database or to refer to only a computer system. Types of information systems Manual – Card index, filing systems Electronic - Office support systems, customer support systems, data processing systems. Decision support systems, intranet.
Typical stages of information system development Analysis – what data is going to be managed e. g. employee or customer records, policies and procedures, promotional materials, financial records Feasibility study – what is the potential for success e. g. strengths and weaknesses, resources needed, technical constraints, confidentiality, security, retention of information Design – what are the detailed features and operations e. g. business rules, system requirements (input, output, storage, processing) Development – what is the specification e. g. are you meeting identified needs, budget controls. Other consideration including checks against specification, reviewing process. Testing – is it for purpose e. g. is it reliable and accurate, does it se qualitative or quantitative data, issues are recorded Deployment – once the specification is accepted the following occurs e. g. installation of the system, operational procedures created, hand over project team to operations. Evaluation - analysis of the testing is carried out e. g. looking at costs and benefits against the original spec, feedback from users, review, modify Maintenance – monitoring the performance, problem solving, customisation to changing user needs, additions to functionality
Benefits and limitations of manual information systems. Benefits Everyone has experience of manual systems Relevance to user Reduce information overload Lower risk of data loss simplicity Limitations Speed Time Efficiency Physical space requirements File naming conventions Archiving requirements Degradation of physical records
Benefits and limitations of electronic information systems. Benefits Limitations Storage capacity Capital investment Time Updating software Simultaneous access to multiple records Technology change Data loss through technical error Combination of other data Security threats Presentation of information System upgrades Business efficiency Server storage space Integration of multiple systems File naming conventions Report generation Quality of data input Ease of amendment Resistance to change Addition or deletion of records Training Information n overload
Legal, security and confidentiality requirements Legal Requirements Laws protecting public and private sector information – Data Protection, Freedom of Information Licensing arrangements Accuracy of information Transfer of information Security and confidentiality Requirements Levels of access Lockable security facilities Security of keys Use of policies and procedures to monitor systems Use of passwords Protection of computer systems Internal and external to the organisation Codes of practice Clear desk policy
How can you monitor the effectiveness of an information system? Have timescales for implementation and review Obtain feedback from users e. g. ease of use, functionality Timing of usage e. g. look at peak time usage for potential overload of system Fit for purpose e. g. is it achieving the planned functionality Gain early knowledge of faults Have reporting systems in place Identify user training requirements
Targets to be completed from this training session. Identify two information systems within the Land Registry. Evaluate their use, benefits and limitations. Explain how important information systems are to the Land Registry. Identify two examples of negotiation within the Land Registry. Ensure that you highlight the approach that is used in both and why they need to differ. From your notes about a Land Registry bespoke document from the presentation create an information leaflet for the general public. The leaflet must be bespoke to the Land Registry and have key information that you think is relevant to the content.