- Slides: 96
Unit 3: Expansion, Reform and Tension American Expansion
Western Land Claims
Northwest Ordinance �With an end to the American Revolution, and the Treaty of Paris firmly in place, America now stretched more than 800, 000 square miles from the Atlantic Ocean west to the Mississippi River. �The great expanse offered unlimited opportunity for settlement of farms and towns. Natural resources were abundant. Americans began moving westward. �Encouraged by Congress, within the short span of 100 years, America grew to 38 states, including Texas to the south, and Oregon and California to the west.
Northwest Ordinance �In 1787, Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance. It established a set of principles and procedures for statehood, applied first to states carved out of the Northwest Territory, including Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, and Indiana. �The Northwest Ordinance guaranteed civil liberties, established guidelines for statehood, encouraged education, and banned slavery from the entire region.
North West Territory ■Grid system was created by Thomas Jefferson… ■Structured and organized land policy ■Allowed for a peaceful purchase of land. ■Promoted an orderly expansion westward. . ■Confederation Congress convinced states who claimed land out west to cede their land to the US Govt. ■US Govt. was to come up with a fair and reasonable land policy…. . Unlike the Proclamation of 1763….
Washington WASHINGTON'S INAGAURAL New Constitution and Government take effect on April 30, 1789. Washington begins his presidency in New York City and alternates between there and Philadelphia. Capital city at this time was New York City. 1789 -1797
Precedents are models, examples or influences other Presidents would follow v. What to call the President? Mr. President v. President sets their own personal style v. VP has no official duties Cabinet appointed by President and advises him v. President acts independent from Congress v. Congress relies on the advice of the President v. Served 2 terms and stepped aside for someone else PRECEDENTS OF WASHINGTON
Washington's First Cabinet � Cabinet advises the President and heads up an agency of the government � Department of State-----Foreign affairs Jefferson----Secretary of State � Department of Treasury---Financial affairs Alexander Hamilton—Secretary of the Treasury � Department of War----------Military affairs Henry Knox----Secretary of War � Attorney General-----------Legal affairs Edmund Randolph---Department of Justice � Postmaster General----------Postal system Samuel Osgood
HAMILTON VS. JEFFERSON v. Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson played a valuable role in the beginning of our nation. v. Both were visionaries and influenced the direction our country would go economically, politically and socially. v. President Washington was stuck in the middle of these two men as they argued over our country’s beginnings.
Rise of Political Parties Federalist Republicans (former Anti -federalist) Leaders Alexander Hamilton and John Adams Thomas Jefferson and James Madison Appealed to … Manufacturers, merchants, wealthy and educated…. Favored seaboard cities Farmers and Planters common man Favored the South and West Ideas of Government Strong government over states Loose Construction of Constitution Implied powers State’s rights over National Govt. Strict construction of Constitution Expressed/Enumerated powers Domestic Policy Support Bank of U. S. , tariffs Don’t support B. U. S. , tariffs high, assume debt of states. low, against national debt, state pay debt.
FIRST SUPREME COURT John Jay first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court President Washington appoints 6 justices to the Supreme Court 3 from North and 3 from South
v. President Washington faced several Indian problems. v. British were supplying the tribes with arms and ammunition to attack US settlers. v. Washington sent General “Mad Anthony” Wayne to defeat the Indian tribes.
War in the Old Northwest Territory v. Several tribes, led by Little Turtle of the Miamis, scored early victories (1790– 91) The Miamis were defeated at Fallen Timbers by General Mad Anthony Wayne (1794)
War in the Old Northwest Territory �Treaty of Greenville �(1795) gave USA right to settle most of Ohio �First formal recognition of Indian sovereignty over land not ceded by treaty
• Farmer’s revolt in western Pennsylvania. • Refused to pay Hamilton’ s excise tax • Believed it was an unfair tax. • Were called the “Whiskey Rebels” Whiskey Rebellion
• Issue at hand was testing the power of the new Constitution �Outcome: • Demonstrated to the people that this new constitution was powerful enough to put down domestic rebellions, “mobocracy” • Showed the power of the national government Whiskey Rebellion
WASHINGTON'S FAREWELL SPEECH Washington warned of the dangers of political parties and permanent alliances with other nations. Washington’s warning against “entangling alliances” became a principle of U. S. foreign policy. Foreign Policy: Isolationism
� 1796 campaign �Adams was supported by New England Federalists �Defeated Jefferson 71 -68 in Electoral College �Jefferson becomes VP �France and US close to war. �Jay’s Treaty �US not honoring the Franco-American Treaty of 1778 Adams Becomes President
Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans Alexander Hamilton v. Thomas Jefferson Hamilton Jefferson � Strong central govt. Strong state govt. � Elite upper class People participation � Commerce/Industry Farms � National Bank Against Nat. Bank � North/New England South/West � Loose Construction Strict Construction � Favored England Favored France
I. Election of 1800
Election of 1800 Democratic-Republican candidates Thomas Jefferson Presidential Candidate Aaron Burr Vice President
Election 1800: Federalist John Adams Presidential Candidate Charles C. Pinckney Vice. President Candidate
Winner of the 1800 Election: Thomas Jefferson’s Thomas Jefferson Presidency 1801 -1809
John S. Adams Federalist Thomas Jefferson Democratic/Republican Significance of Election of 1800 • peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another • “revolutionary” revolutionary achievement
The Election of 1800 • This contest marked the first time that power passed from one American political party to another. • Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson against Federalist John Adams • The campaign was vicious. • Supporters of each side made their arguments in letters and newspaper editorials, which often made wild accusations and spread scandalous stories.
The Election of 1800 Problems • The election ended in a tie between Jefferson and Burr. • Political parties did not specify who was the party’s preferred candidate for president. • The House of Representatives was deadlocked at 35 votes. • Hamilton urged Federalists to vote for Jefferson. On the 36 th vote, Jefferson was chosen president. • These problems with the voting system led to the passage of the Twelfth Amendment (1804), which said that electors must cast separate ballots for president and vice president.
But he’s on the ten dollar bill … Hamilton’s choice of Jefferson over Burr in the House of Representatives in the 1800 election and Hamilton’s opposition to Burr’s 1804 run for New York governor led to their deadly duel. Hamilton’s death ended the power of the Federalist Party.
Hamilton Burr Duel � Usually after a challenge, differences were resolved peacefully. � Threw dice to see who shot first. � Hamilton won, but missed � Burr hit Hamilton in the stomach causing him to die the next day. � Burr is charged with murder but flees before being put on trial. � Burr flees to Europe eventually but returns to NY to practice law until his death.
Thomas Jefferson �Reduces the size of the government �Reduced the size of the army and navy �Pushes for free trade �Marbury v. Madison (1803) -John Marshall -Establishes Judicial Review
The Beginning �March 4, 1801 � Thomas Jefferson is the first President inaugurated in the new capital city of Washington D. C. � He delivers his first inaugural address. This address outlines what he feels are the essential principles of government.
First Inaugural Address �Essential Principles of Government � “equal and exact justice to all men” � “peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations” � “the support of state governments” � “the preservation of general government” � punishment for those who choose to revolt � compliance with the decisions of the majority
First Inaugural Address �Essential Principles of Government Cont… � “a well disciplined militia” � honest payment of debts � maintaining a sound economy � proper distribution of information � freedom of religion � freedom of the press
The Jefferson Presidency Simplifying the Presidency • Jefferson replaces some Federalists with Democratic-Republicans • Reduces size of armed forces; cuts social expenses of government • Eliminates internal taxes; reduces influence of Bank of the U. S. • Favors free trade over government-controlled trade, tariffs • Southern Dominance of Politics • Jefferson first to take office in new Washington, D. C. • South dominates politics; Northern, Federalist influence decline
II. Louisiana Purchase �In 1800, Thomas Jefferson was elected the 3 rd President of the United States. Jefferson was intensely curious about treasures yet to be discovered in the western land. Jefferson approached Congress with a request for $2, 500 for an expedition west of Mississippi River, into territory then claimed by France. �Jefferson’s plan was to gain knowledge about the plants and animals that inhabited the vast uncharted West.
Louisiana Purchase �Eventually, Jefferson hoped to open the land to settlement, explaining to Congress that it would be to the benefit of Native Americans to “abandon hunting, to apply to the raising of stock, to agriculture and domestic manufacture, and thereby prove to themselves that less land labor will maintain them in this, better than in their former mode of living. ” To Jefferson, this was a logical plan for coexistence between Native Americans and westward settlers.
The Louisiana Purchase • General Napoleon Bonaparte wanted to build a French empire. • Bonaparte wanted to regain France’s former lands called the Louisiana Territory. • Those lands had gone to Spain in the Treaty of Paris in 1763. • Spain turned over control of the area to France.
Louisiana Purchase � Since Napoleon was at war with Great Britain, he offered the entire Louisiana Territory to the U. S. for $15 million. � He needed money for his war with Great Britain. � Jefferson purchased the Louisiana Territory for $15 million, about 3 cents an acre. � Almost doubled the size of the United States � Jefferson’s greatest accomplishment � Why? Didn’t fight a war, no bloodshed.
The Louisiana Purchase • Soon after proposing the Lewis & Clark Expedition, Jefferson sent James Monroe to Paris to try to purchase New Orleans and West Florida. • At the meeting, France offered to sell the United States all of the vast Louisiana Territory. • The Constitution did not directly give Jefferson the authority to buy new territory for the nation. • Jefferson and his fellow strict constructionists decided that the right to acquire territory was implicit in the president’s constitutional power to make treaties.
Louisiana Purchase �April 30, 1803 � The purchase added � 828, 000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi to the United States. � July 4, 1803 the Louisiana Purchase is publicly announced. Original treaty can be found at: http: //www. archives. gov/exhibits/american_o riginals_iv/sections/louisiana_purchase_treaty. html
Spanish Land 1800 • Great Britain after the Revolution. • United States after War • Spanish land after Revolution New Orleans
The Louisiana Purchase • Jefferson sent the Corps of Discovery, usually called the Lewis and Clark expedition, to explore the land of the Louisiana Purchase. • Led by Meriwether Lewis, Jefferson’s secretary, and William Clark, an experienced frontiersman • Their ultimate goal was to reach the Pacific Ocean. • They mapped the country and surveyed its natural history, including plants, animals, and landforms. • Zebulon M. Pike led an 1805 expedition that traveled 2, 000 miles to explore the upper Mississippi Valley. • In 1806 he explored the Southwest and gathered information about the economy and defenses of Spanish New Mexico and Texas.
The Lewis and Clark Expedition � Jefferson chose Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to lead the expedition. They led 50 other explorers in the Corps of Discovery. � Starting near St. Louis, they traveled up the Missouri River. Ultimately, they traveled for 28 months, covering almost 8, 000 miles along a route that took them to the Pacific Ocean and back. � Lewis and Clark met Sacagawea, a young Shoshone woman, while wintering at Fort Mandan in today’s North Dakota.
The Lewis and Clark Expedition � Sacagawea became instrumental in the success of the expedition, serving as interpreter and guide. � The success of the Lewis and Clark Expedition opened the floodgates to western expansion, and along with it, a dramatic an ominous change for Native Americans living both east and west of the Mississippi River.
Lewis and Clark Expedition �January 18, 1803 � Jefferson sends a secret message to congress regarding the Lewis and Clark Expedition. � In this message Jefferson asks for permission to establish trading with the Indians. � The original message can be found at: http: //www. ourdocuments. gov/doc. php? flas h=true&doc=17
The Lewis and Clark Expedition �Sacagawea became instrumental in the success of the expedition, serving as interpreter and guide. �The success of the Lewis and Clark Expedition opened the floodgates to western expansion, and along with it, a dramatic an ominous change for Native Americans living both east and west of the Mississippi River.
Second Inaugural Address �Delivered on March 4, 1805. �Stresses the importance of American neutrality in matters of foreign affairs. �Outlines the Louisiana Purchase and the processes by which the original inhabitants of the land will become citizens of the United States. �Stresses the importance of harmony amongst all inhabitants of America
Embargo Act of 1807 � 1803 - Renewal of the Napoleonic Wars between France and Great Britain. � America was once again trapped between the two nations. � Jefferson wanting to stay neutral proposed an embargo on all foreign trade. � This was highly unsuccessful and devastated the American economy. � The Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 was put in place to repeal the unsuccessful Embargo Act.
Embargo Act of 1807 � Reasoning: Since England France were at war with one another and traded for most of their natural resources with U. S. , if we cut off our exports to them it would force them to respect our neutrality…. THIS IS CALLED ECONOMIC COERCION. • The Embargo Act not only hurt France and Britain but it also hurt U. S. trade which was our economic survival as a nation. • As a result, many Americans defied the law and began to smuggle goods from these countries as well as others. • It would have the reverse effect…… • Hurt American businesses • • New Englander’s shift from trade to industry U. S. smuggled New England talked of secession…. . Lasted 15 months, repealed in March of 1809
III. James Madison. Election of 1808 and election of 1812 � James Madison, a Democratic-Republican, won � In the Spring of 1812, Madison decided to go to war against Britain
Election of 1812
James Madison Presidency Born in Virginia, 1751 Enlisted in Continental Army but too small Attended Princeton University and became a lawyer. Father of the Constitution and Bill of Rights. Secretary of State during Jefferson’s Presidency President, 1809 to 1817 Most known for defending US Neutrality during the War of 1812.
IV. War of 1812 “Mr. Madison’s War” �PRINCIPLES WE FOUGHT �Defend our neutrality �Freedom of the seas �Defend our self interest �Madison brought the US into this war to defend the neutrality of the US. �Would this be a violation of President Washington’s policy of keeping the US out of war and neutral?
War of 1812 “Mr. Madison’s War” Why Britain, not France? � Impressments: destroying US economy � British forts � Arming of Indians (Tecumseh) � Desire for Canada � No respect from British � Was convinced by the War Hawks that this was a needed war.
War of 1812 “Mr. Madison’s War” � June, 1812: War Hawks engineer declaration of war with England. �Unfortunately, Congress was not aware that London repealed impressment policy 2 days prior to war � New England opposed to war but Southern/western states supported the war � US at war vs. most powerful nation, but US divided � Poorly equipped US army initiated military action in 1812 by launching a 3 -part invasion of Canada � The British easily repulsed the Americans
The War of 1812 A. Causes of the War 1. Impressments - Britain and France were fighting a war in Europe. - Britain began capturing American sailors and “impressing” them, or forcing them to work on British ships. -By 1807, Britain had seized more than 1, 000 American ships.
The War of 1812 2. Embargo Act of 1807 �President Jefferson convinced Congress to declare an embargo. �Jefferson believed the embargo would hurt Britain, but it really hurt America. �In 1809, Congress ended the embargo with all countries except Britain and France
The War of 1812 3. America’s Desire for Canada � Americans saw that Canada was not well-defended by Britain. � Americans wanted more land believed that people in Canada would want to join the United States.
The War of 1812 4. The War Hawks � A group of Democratic Republican Congressmen from the South and West. � Wanted war against Britain � Led by Senator John C. Calhoun of South Carolina and Henry Clay of Kentucky.
War Hawks Beliefs for war �U. S. must defend its neutrality �Stop impressment �British forts �Tecumseh �Desire for Canada and Florida �Called 2 nd War of Independence
The WAR of 1812 4. British giving Native Americans guns and ammunitions. Moreover, members of Congress believed the British were arming Native Americans and instigating aggression against the United States. “We gave them forest-clad mountains and valleys full of game and in return what did they give our warriors and our women? Rum, trinkets (jewelry) and death”
The War of 1812 B. Battles 1. The War in Canada � Americans were unprepared for war � The British captured Detroit and the Americans failed to capture Canada. � Many Native Americans helped the British because they wanted to stop Americans from taking more land.
The War of 1812 2. The War at Sea � The U. S. Navy was young and outnumbered. � In November of 1812, the British blockaded the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. � The blockade grew throughout the war. � By 1813, most American ships were unable to leave their ports.
War of 1812 The Battle of Lake Erie was probably the most important naval battle of the war After defeating the British, Captain Oliver Hazard Perry declared, “We have met the enemy and they are ours” Thomas Macdonough defeated a British fleet on Lake Champlain which resulted in a British retreat US Naval tradition develops during the War of 1812
The War of 1812 3. The War on Land � Battle for Washington �The British invaded Washington, D. C. in 1814. �British soldiers burned the Capitol, the White House, and other public buildings. �Before the British burned the White House, Dolly Madison saved a famous painting of George Washington.
Fort Mc. Henry Oh Say Can You See By the Dawn’s Early Light… - Francis Scott Key
National Anthem � http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Ohrr. Gu 2 rc. Z 4&feature=player_embedded Star Spangle Banner – National Anthem Super Bowl 2004 - Beyonce � http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=yb_y. Vx. Dy. B 9 s&feature=player_embedded Star Spangle Banner – National Anthem Lyrics
Studio portrait of the surviving Six Nations warriors who fought with the British in the War of 1812. (Right to left: ) Sakawaraton a. k. a. John Smoke Johnson (born ca. 1792); John Tutela (born ca. 1797) and Young Warner (born ca. 1794). Taken in Brantford, Ontario.
The War of 1812
The War of 1812 c. Outcome 1. On June 18, 1812, Congress declared war on Great Britain, two years later the two countries signed the Treaty of Ghent. 2. Significant Battle of New Orleans' military leader Andrew Jackson. Battle fought after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent. 3. Though militarily a stalemate, the War of 1812 ushered in a spirit of nationalism in the U. S. that expanded trade and westward movement.
Treaty of Ghent War of 1812 is considered a “stalemate”…Dec. 1814 Peace commissioners in Ghent devised the following terms of peace *A halt to the fighting *The return of all conquered territory to the prewar borders *Recognition of the prewar boundary between Canada and the United States Treaty was ratified by the Senate
Battle of New Orleans
Battle of New Orleans � 10, 000 British troops reached the mouth of the Mississippi River and were threatening the Louisiana Purchase. � 4, 500 U. S. troops led by Andrew Jackson, the British were defeated on January 8, 1815, 2 weeks after the Treaty of Ghent was negotiated to end the war.
Battle of New Orleans � Considered greatest U. S. victory to that time � Defeated British’s best without help from any country � Countries gained respect for the U. S. after this battle. � Kept Louisiana Purchase under the control of the U. S
Battle of New Orleans �Battle of New Orleans (1815) �Andrew Jackson becomes war hero �Nationalism grows http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Ls. RK 3 DNoa_Q Battle of New Orleans Video – Johnny Horton http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=qx. B 42 cj. HTGg Battle of New Orleans Video – Lyrics http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=3 YDSYOixm. K 0 Battle of New Orleans Video – Dolly Parton
The War of 1812 � British v. USA � Battle of Fort Mc. Henry � British invade Baltimore � Francis Scott Key writes the Star Spangled Banner � British burn Washington DC � Naval Battles � USS Constitution (Old Ironsides) � Treaty of Ghent (1814) � Armistice is signed � The 49 th parallel is set “Old Ironsides” U. S. S. Constitution
I. James Monroe � 5 th President (1817 -1825) �Democratic-Republican �“Era of Good Feeling” � Period were national unity is strengthening • Born in Virginia in 1758, • Attended the College of • • William and Mary, Fought with Continental Army Practiced law in Virginia. Elected United States Senator Helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase.
II. New land � 1. In 1819, the U. S. and Spain signed the Adams-Onis Treaty (or Transcontinental Treaty), transferring ownership of Florida and parts of Alabama and Mississippi from Spain to the United States. Spain retained Texas, while giving up its claims to the Oregon Territory.
2. Missouri Compromise (1820) � In 1818 US had 10 free and 10 slave States � Illinois became the 11 th free State & South figured Missouri would be the 11 th slave State � Was a provision for Missouri to gradually become a free State � Southern Senators saw a threat and refused to admit Missouri as a State �Missouri Compromise (1820) � Alabama was then accepted as 11 th slave State � Balance was restored, but fighting began when Missouri petitioned for admittance again � Henry Clay – “the Great Compromiser” came up with a plan
�Missouri would enter as a slave State �Maine would enter as a free State �The Louisiana Territory would be divided on the 36 o 31’ line of northern latitude �Below the line Slave State �Above free State �Monroe signed it and quiet the issue of slavery for the time.
� Then, on December 2, 1823, President James Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine. It put Europe on notice that the U. S. would not tolerate any additional European colonies in North America. � Though the U. S. had little military might to enforce the doctrine, it became the basis for U. S. foreign policy in the western Hemisphere. � Stay out of Latin America!!!
Inventions 1. American domestic policy focused on the movement west. The introduction of the steamboat in 1807 changed river travel (Robert Fulton). 2. 20 yrs. later the steam locomotive would lead to the establishment of a railroad network stretching from the East Coast to the Mississippi River.
Erie Canal � With great fanfare, the Erie Canal opened in 1825, connecting Lake Erie to the west with the Hudson River to the east. � Canals and railroads allowed goods to move west and farmers’ products to move east. � New York, a central point for America’s trade and banking, quickly grew to a population of over 200, 000 by 1830. � The development of the nation’s infrastructure led to the growth of America’s inner cities, including Chicago which boasted of a population of 4, 170 in 1837, when it officially became a city. � http: //havefunwithhistory. com/movies/erie. html Erie Canal
Review Questions 1. Which legislation established the procedures for the orderly expansion of the United States? A. The Northwest Ordinance (1787) B. The Louisiana Purchase (1803) C. The Adams-Onis Treaty (1819) D. The Monroe Doctrine (1823)
Review Questions 2. What was the effect of the Lewis and Clark Expedition? A. It called for passage of the Homestead Act B. It decreased interest in land west of the Mississippi C. It encouraged westward expansion D. It created interest in gold mining in California
Review Questions 3. Which event led to the largest amount of land gained in the history of the United States? A. the Homestead Act B. the Northwest Ordinance C. the Louisiana Purchase D. the Adams-Onis Treaty
Review Questions 4. Of what significance were railroads and canals in 1830 s? A. They slowed city growth B. They stopped expansion C. They encouraged westward movement D. They improved Native American relations