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Unit 21 grain and oil crops Field crops in the United States is very Important. Field crops take up 450 million acres in this country, that accounts for 20 percent of our Land mass. Field crops make up a great part of the Agricultural Products exported from the U. S. The United States grows fifty percent of the worlds corn. It is the Number one grain crop in the U. S. Ninety percent of corn production Is for livestock feed. Corn varieties grown in descending order are Dent, flint, popcorn, sweat, soft, and pod.
Based on production wheat is the second most common grain crop Grown in the U. S. It mainly grown for human foods like bread, Cakes, cereal, crackers, macaroni, and noodles. The most grown varieties are Common, durum, club, poulard, polish, emmer, and spelt. Hard red spring, hard red winter, soft red winter, and White wheat are the most commonly grown. Barley is the fifth most popular grain grown in the U. S. It is mostly Raised for livestock feed. Malting barley is grown for the brewing Industry. Oats come in fourth as grain grown in the U. S. Only five percent Of oats end up as human food
Rye is grown in small amounts in the U. S. today. At one time it was Widely grown. It is very resistant to diseases. It is mostly grown now For grain production or as a forage crop for cattle to harvest out of the Field. Rice is the number one grain grown in the world. It is raised exclusively For human consumption. Sorghum is the third most common grain crop grown in the U. S. Popular varieties are Grain, forage, syrup, grass, and broomcorn
Oil seed production – vegetable oil Soybean is a very important oil crop grown in the U. S. It has an Annual gross income of 11 billion dollars. It is used for oil and Grain production. It also is used for plastics, ink, specialty foods. Peanuts are grown mostly for oil and meal production. A percentage Of peanuts are grown and processed for human consumption. Safflower is another crop raised mostly for oil production. Many Vegetable oils contain safflower for human consumption. Flax is a crop that once was a major producer of fiber that when Weaved was called linen. Now is primarily raised for its production Of linseed oil Ninety percent of sunflower production is for oil. This oil can even Be burned in diesel engines. The other ten percent of production is For human consumption and bird feed.
Specialty crops Cotton is an important crop in the southern U. S. It is a fiber crop That also produces some oil from its seeds after the ginning Process. Sugar beets supply thirty five percent of the sugar used in the U. S. Sugar Cane supplies sixty five percent of the sugar used in the U. S. Tobacco is still raised as a cash crop in the southern U. S. It is Raised strictly to sell. Much tobacco is exported.
Seed Production Commercial seed production is a very important industry in the U. S. These producers provide agriculturalists a high quality Product of specified variety and usually grown in the conditions That the crop will be grown in by the producer. Registered seed Is a very high quality product
Crop Classification Cereal grains are grown for their edible seeds. Seed legumes are raised for edible seeds and nitrogen fixation. Root crops are grown for their storage roots Forage crops are raised for cattle to harvest in the field Sugar crops are raised for their ability to produce large amounts of sugar Oil crops are grown to produce large amounts of oil in their seeds Tuber crops are grown for their storage stems Stimulants are grown for their ability to alter human metabolism.
Cultural practices Conventional seedbed preparation consists of a primary tillage tool Like a moldboard plow, followed by a secondary tillage tool like a Disk or harrow Minimum tillage places seeds right into an old field. No secondary or Primary tillage tools. The ground has more trash, old crop, on it and Is very hard. This requires special equipment. There is less soil disturbance Planting row crops is usually done with a drill in which individual Seeds are placed in the ground, like an air seeder. They may also Be planted by a hill drop seeder which places two or three seeds in A mound of soil. They also may be seeded with a checkrow seeder Which seeds several seeds in a pattern
Drill planters are usually used for cereal grain production. They plant A high population of seeds in a spaced row. The row spacing allows For less competition between plants for water in Dry land production. Broadcast seeding is when seeds are spread out on the top of the Soil. They are usually harrowed or packed in to make contact with the Soil. Grass seed is sometimes sown this way. Water in the soil is very important. Ideally 50 % of the soil pore space Would be filled with water. Only one half of this would be available To the plant. Dry land farming relies only on precipitation received. Spaced rows Also help collect snow for additional moisture. Irrigation in field crops is similar to vegetable production. The most Common method of irrigation is sprinkler. Some surface irrigation is Done in some crops like sugar beets. Drip irrigation is used on Specialized crops because of cost.
Pests are considered to be diseases, weeds, insects, and animals that Do damage to crops Losses can be in reduced yields, competition reduced yields, and Physical damage. Reduction of quality of crops can consist of animal and plant filth Foreign material, and damage to the crop itself. Spoilage can be cause by weeds blocking the drying process elevating The humidity. And damaged crops products molding
Controlling pests can consist of mechanical methods that stir up The soil damaging host places. Biological controls that may consist Of predator insects, controlled diseases, and baits. By using resistant Varieties a producer may cut losses. What should be the last resort Is usually the first the use of chemicals.
Harvesting and storage Most grain crops are harvested with a combine. This machine Cuts then threshes the grain to get the seeds out. Most oil crops Are also harvested this way. Other crops, like sugar beets and Potatoes require special equipment. Storing cereal grains require that they be very dry to reduce spoilage. Also protecting them from insect and rodent damage during storage Is very important. Many customers of U. S. grains complain of animal And insect damage. Many oil crops are not stored long as the oil may Start to dry. Sugar beets and potatoes can be stored under the right Conditions.