Unit 2 600 BCE 600 CE The Classical

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Unit 2 (600 BCE– 600 CE) The Classical Empires Mr. Lewis AP World History

Unit 2 (600 BCE– 600 CE) The Classical Empires Mr. Lewis AP World History

Population Growth

Population Growth

Periodization Foundations 8000 BCE to 600 CE Ancient 8000 BCE to 1000 BCE Classical

Periodization Foundations 8000 BCE to 600 CE Ancient 8000 BCE to 1000 BCE Classical 1000 BCE to 450 CE* why isn’t this 600 CE?

Uniting Large Regions 1000 BCE – 500 CE

Uniting Large Regions 1000 BCE – 500 CE

Mapping the Ancient World

Mapping the Ancient World

Mapping the Classical World

Mapping the Classical World

1000 BCE—A Turning Point v Wave of invasions on all river civilizations, made more

1000 BCE—A Turning Point v Wave of invasions on all river civilizations, made more effective b/c of iron weapons n n n Indus Valley falls to Aryans Egypt’s political structure fails as does those in Mesopotamia China’s transition is more subtle and symbolic: changes dynasties and introduces iron

The Classical Period (1000 BCE to 450 CE) v Expansion n v Aggressive invasions

The Classical Period (1000 BCE to 450 CE) v Expansion n v Aggressive invasions combines with river valley experience to form even large civilizations Integration n New size makes it more challenging to keep everyone under control and society functioning

Continuities v Agricultural economies v Patriarchal societies v RVC heritage

Continuities v Agricultural economies v Patriarchal societies v RVC heritage

Triggers for Change v Iron technology v Deliberate cultural integration

Triggers for Change v Iron technology v Deliberate cultural integration

Generation of Belief Systems Hinduism Judaism Buddhism Christianity

Generation of Belief Systems Hinduism Judaism Buddhism Christianity

Urbanization

Urbanization

Afro-Eurasia in 500 BCE

Afro-Eurasia in 500 BCE

Afro-Eurasia in 350 BCE

Afro-Eurasia in 350 BCE

Afro-Eurasia in 200 BCE

Afro-Eurasia in 200 BCE

Afro-Eurasia in 100 CE

Afro-Eurasia in 100 CE

Persian Empire

Persian Empire

Persian Empire (558 -332 BCE) v v Founded by Cyrus the Great Darius I

Persian Empire (558 -332 BCE) v v Founded by Cyrus the Great Darius I (521 -486 BCE) n n Balanced central administration & local governors Divided government into 3 districts ran by satraps Built the Royal Road Fought Persian Wars (500 -479 BCE) p Led to the decline of the Persian Empire

Persian Empire v Persian Society n n v Persian Economy n n v Women

Persian Empire v Persian Society n n v Persian Economy n n v Women worked in textile manufacturing Government used slaves to complete public works projects Government coined money Facilitated trade from Greece to India Persian Religion n Zoroastrianism

World in 350 BCE

World in 350 BCE

Classical China v Zhou Dynasty (1029 -258) n n v Decline of Zhou Dynasty

Classical China v Zhou Dynasty (1029 -258) n n v Decline of Zhou Dynasty n n n v Mandate of Heaven Feudalism Confucianism Daoism Legalism Warring States Period n Kingdom of Qin began expanding during the 3 rd century BCE

Qin Dynasty (221 -202 BCE) v v Used Legalism to restore order Land reforms

Qin Dynasty (221 -202 BCE) v v Used Legalism to restore order Land reforms weakened aristocracy n v v Peasants were given land rights to farm remote territories Centralized bureaucracy Unified China n Standardized script, laws, and weights & measures

Qin Shi Huangdi v v Proclaimed himself “First Emperor” of China Centralized Power n

Qin Shi Huangdi v v Proclaimed himself “First Emperor” of China Centralized Power n n v v Disarmed local militaries Built roads & defensive walls Demanded burning of books Used forced labor to complete public works projects

Terra Cotta Army

Terra Cotta Army

Terra Cotta Army

Terra Cotta Army

Early Han Dynasty (202 BCE-9 CE) v Founded by Liu Bang n v Conquered

Early Han Dynasty (202 BCE-9 CE) v Founded by Liu Bang n v Conquered northern Vietnam, Korea, and Central Asia n v Longest dynasty in Chinese History Tribute System Monopolized iron, salt, and liquor

Han Wudi (Wu Ti) v Ruled from 141 -87 BCE n v Two Goals

Han Wudi (Wu Ti) v Ruled from 141 -87 BCE n v Two Goals n n v Supported Legalism Centralize government Expand the empire Reforms n n Expanded bureaucracy Started an imperial university p n n 30, 000 students at end of dynasty Confucian examination system Expanded the Silk Roads

Mauryan Dynasty v Founded by Chandragupta Maurya n Arthashastra

Mauryan Dynasty v Founded by Chandragupta Maurya n Arthashastra

Ashoka (268 -232 BCE) v Conquered most of India n n v Reforms n

Ashoka (268 -232 BCE) v Conquered most of India n n v Reforms n n v v Used elephants in warfare Battle of Kalinga Pillars of Ashoka Centralized bureaucracy Expanded agriculture Built roads to promote trade Promoted the spread of Buddhism Empire declined after Ashoka’s death

Gupta Dynasty (320 -565 CE) v Founded by Chandra Gupta n v Gupta Government

Gupta Dynasty (320 -565 CE) v Founded by Chandra Gupta n v Gupta Government n n v Used alliances, tribute & conquest Coalition of regional kingdoms Policy & administration left to local rulers Eventually destroyed by the White Huns

Ancient Greece v Geography prevented political unification n v City-States n n v Cities

Ancient Greece v Geography prevented political unification n v City-States n n v Cities offered safety and wealth Different political systems Unified when threatened n v Culturally unified Persian Wars weaken city-states n Peloponnesian War (431404 BCE)

Greek Colonization

Greek Colonization

Alexander the Great (332 -323 BCE) v v Father, Philip II, conquered most of

Alexander the Great (332 -323 BCE) v v Father, Philip II, conquered most of Greece Built a massive empire n n v Conquered Persia & Egypt Threatened India Empire divided into 3 parts after his death n n Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt Seleucid Empire in Persia

Hellenistic Empire Indus

Hellenistic Empire Indus

Roman Republic (509 -44 BCE) v Political System n n n v Military expansion

Roman Republic (509 -44 BCE) v Political System n n n v Military expansion n v Consuls Senate (patricians) Tribunes (plebeians) Assimilated conquered peoples Twelve Tables n n Created a standardized system of laws Established rights for defendants

Expansion of Roman Republic

Expansion of Roman Republic

End of Republic v v Growing tensions between rich & poor Latifundias n v

End of Republic v v Growing tensions between rich & poor Latifundias n v Large plantations in conquered lands controlled by aristocrats Julius Caesar n n Dictator for life in 44 BCE Reforms p n Sought to relieve tension between the classes Executed by aristocratic conspirators

Roman Empire (31 BCE-476 CE) v Established by Augustus n n v NOT a

Roman Empire (31 BCE-476 CE) v Established by Augustus n n v NOT a dynasty n v v Continued military expansion Pax Romana Succession often depended upon military strength Tolerated local customs & religions Laws & patriotism held empire together

Maya (300– 900 CE) v v Heirs to Olmec traditions Culturally unified citystates n

Maya (300– 900 CE) v v Heirs to Olmec traditions Culturally unified citystates n v Built elaborate religious and commercial centers n v v Never form a unified political system Tikal & Chichen-Itza Traded luxury products Advanced math & science n Zero, solar year, etc.

El Castillo at Chichen-Itza

El Castillo at Chichen-Itza

Mayan Architecture

Mayan Architecture

Mayan Oberservatory

Mayan Oberservatory

Mayan Decline Maya city-states were abandoned or destroyed between 800 -900 CE v Causes

Mayan Decline Maya city-states were abandoned or destroyed between 800 -900 CE v Causes for decline include: v n n n The disruption of trade after the decline of Teotihuacan in Central Mexico Environmental degradation caused by overpopulation Epidemic disease