- Slides: 43
Unit 14: Social Psychology
Introduction • Social Psychology the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
Social Thinking Social thinking involves thinking about others, especially when they engage in doing things that are unexpected.
Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations • Attribution theory suggested that we have a tendency to give causal explanations for someone’s behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition. • Was my friend a jerk because she had a bad day or is just a bad person • A teacher may wonder whether a child’s hostility reflects an aggressive personality (dispositional attribution) or is a reaction to stress or abuse (a situational attribution).
The tendency to overestimate the impact of personal disposition and underestimate the impact of the situations in analyzing the behaviors of others leads to the fundamental attribution error. Example: Someone trips you and you think they did it on purpose because they are mean.
1. The Effects of Attribution • Social Effects: Happy Couples chalk up an argument to other person having a bad day. Divorced couple could attribute it to the other person just being mean. • Political Effects: how do we explain poverty? Ex. Conservatives tend to attribute social problems to the poor and unemployed. Liberals blame past and present situations. • Workplace Effects managers could attribute poor performance of personal factors.
1. Effects of Attribution How we explain someone’s behavior affects how we react to it.
Attitudes & Actions Attitude: A belief and feeling that predisposes a person to respond in a particular way to objects, other people, and events. If we believe a person is mean, we may feel dislike for the person and act in an unfriendly manner.
Attitudes and Actions – Central route persuasion attitude change path in which interest people focus in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts. – Peripheral route persuasion attitude change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker’s attractiveness.
Attitudes and Actions Affect Attitudes • The Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon – “start small and build” – the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
Attitudes and Actions Affect Attitudes • Role-Playing Affects Attitudes – Role a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave. – Stanford prison study – https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=L_LKz. Eql. Pto
Conformity and Obedience Group Pressure and Conformity • Conformity adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard – Solomon Asch study – https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=r. PEDS-0 j. Mgs
Conformity and Obedience Group Pressure and Conformity • Conditions That Strengthen Conformity – One is made to feel incompetent or insecure – Group has at least three people – Group is unanimous – One admires the group’s status – One has made no prior commitment – Others in group observe one’s behavior – One’s culture strongly encourages respect for social standards
Conformity and Obedience • Reasons for Conforming – Normative social influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval – Informational social influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept other’s opinions about reality.
Conformity and Obedience • Obedience https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=x. OYLCy 5 PVg. M – Milgram’s studies on obedience • Procedure • Results • Ethics • Follow up studies
Conformity and Obedience
Group Influence Individual Behavior in the Presence of Others • Social Facilitation stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others. – Task difficulty – Expertise effects – Crowding effects
Group Influence Individual Behavior in the Presence of Others • Social Loafing The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling efforts toward a common goal than if they were individually accountable.
Group Influence Individual Behavior in the Presence of Others • Deindividuation • People get swept up in a group and lose sense of self. • Feel anonymous and aroused. • Explains rioting behaviors.
Group Influence Effects of Group Interaction • Group Polarization Groups tend to make more extreme decisions than the individual. For example, after a group discussion, people already supportive of a war become more supportive, people with an initial tendency towards racism become more racist and a group with a slight preference for one job candidate will come out with a much stronger preference.
Group Influence Effects of Group Interaction • Groupthink Group members suppress their reservations about the ideas supported by the group. • They are more concerned with group harmony. • Worse in highly cohesive groups. – Challenger explosion
Cultural Influence • Culture the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next – Culture within animals – Culture in humans
Cultural Influence Variations Across Cultures • Norm an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe “proper” behavior – Personal space the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
The Power of Individuals • Social control vs personal control • Minority influence
Prejudice How Prejudiced Are People? • Prejudice an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. • Stereotype generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people • Discrimination unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members.
Prejudice Social Roots of Prejudice • Social Inequalities • Us and Them: Ingroup and Outgroup – Ingroup “Us” – people with whom we share a common identity. – Ingroup bias the tendency to favor our own group – Outgroup “Them” – those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup.
Aggression • Aggression any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy. • Frustration-aggression principle the principle that frustration creates anger, which can generate aggression
Biopsychosocial Understanding of Aggression
Attraction 5 Factors of Attraction
1. Proximity • Geographic nearness Mere exposure effect: • Repeated exposure to something breeds liking.
2. Reciprocal Liking • You are more likely to like someone who likes you. • Except in elementary school!!!!
3. Similarity • Paula Abdul was wrong- opposites do NOT attract. • Birds of the same feather do flock together. • Similarity breeds content.
4. Liking through Association • Classical Conditioning can play a part in attraction. • I love BBQ, If I see the same waitress every time I go there, I may begin to associate that waitress with the good feelings I get from Larry’s.
5. Physical Attractiveness • Physically attractiveness predicts dating frequency (they date more). • They are perceived as healthier, happier, more honest and successful than less attractive counterparts.
Attraction Romantic Love – Passionate love an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship – Companionate love the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined. • Equity a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it. • Self-disclosure revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
Altruism • Altruism unselfish regard for the welfare of others • Bystander Intervention – Diffusion of responsibility – Bystander effect the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present. – Kitty Genovese
Altruism The Norms of Helping • Social exchange theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs. • Reciprocity norm an expectation that people will help, not hurt those who have helped them. • Social-responsibility norm an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.
Conflict and Peacemaking • Conflict a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas. • Social trap a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
Conflict and Peacemaking Enemy Perceptions • Mirror-image perceptions mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive. • Self-fulfilling prophecy a belief that leads to its own fulfillment.
The End of Unit 14 and The END OF THE BOOK!! YOU MADE IT!! WHOOP!!