- Slides: 41
Unit 11 Teaching Reading
Teaching Aims: • To understand the meaning of reading • To understand the characteristics for a good reader • To know what to read in the classroom and in real life • To grasp the strategies for reading comprehension • To grasp the principles for teaching reading • To know the models for teaching reading • To know stages and activities for teaching
• • How do we read ? What do we read ? Strategies for reading comprehension The role of vocabulary in reading Principles for teaching reading Models for teaching reading Stages and activities for teaching reading
• Discussion (Task 1) • Difference between reading aloud and silent reading • Characteristics of effective or good readers
• Read the following assumption about reading and deciding if you agree with them or not. Try to give reasons for your decision.
• Reading has only one purpose, i. e. to get information. • Reading is a silent activity. Reading aloud does not help understanding. • Reading with a purpose is more effective than reading without a purpose. • When we read, our eyes are constantly moving from letter to letter, word to word. • Reading is an individual activity • We need to read and understand all the words in order to understand a text • We read everything at the same speed
• When reading in a foreign language, we mentally translate everything in order to understand • It is helpful to use a dictionary to find the meaning of all new words. • The lack of culture knowledge may affect the rate of reading comprehension. • Possessing a large amount of vocabulary is the key for reading comprehension. • Reading can best be improved by being engaged in reading and reading more.
• There are many different between reading aloud and silent reading in reading manners, reading spead, reading purposes, reading skills, form of reading activities and level of difficulty in classroom management.
• Manner: Reading aloud is of utterance of every syllable of every word while silent reading is silent and requires no utterance.
• Speed: Reading aloud is much slower while silent reading is usually fast.
• Purpose: The main purpose for reading aloud is to share information with others , appreciation of a good piece of writing, pronunciationand memary while silent reading is usually to get or extract information , understanding or sometimes for pleasure as well.
• Skills involved: a good pronunciation and intonation in reading aloud while in silent reading we need effective strategies such as skimming, scanning, predicting, guessing unknown words from context, understanding details, relations between sentences and between paragraphs, understanding references, making inferences, evaluating the writer’s attitudes and opinions, etc.
• Form of activity: Reading aloud is collective activity while silent reading is individual activity.
• Level of difficulty in classroom management: Reading aloud is easy to manage ; silent reading is difficult to manage.
• a clear purpose in reading • read silently • read phrase by phrase, rather than word by word • concentrate on the important bits, skim the rest, and skip the insignificant parts • use different speeds and strategies for different reading tasks
• perceive the information in the target language rather than mentally translate • guess the meaning of the new words from the context, or ignore them • have and use background information to help understand the text
• What to read from textbooks • What to read in real life
• In ESL/ EFL textbooks we have a heavy load of literary text, i. e. stories, tales and non-literary passages, i. e. essays, diaries, anecdotes, biographies. They mainly focus on language content, i. e. vocabulary, grammar, sentence structures and text meaning, so they ignore reading skills.
• calendars, addresses, phone books, name cards, bank statements, credit cards, maps, anecdotes, weather forecast, pamphlets, product labels, washing instructions, short stories, novels, plays, handbooks, clothes size labels, graffiti on walls, children’s scribbling, information letters, business letters, rules and regulations, electronic mail, telegrams, fax messages, junk mail, postcards, comic books, newspapers, diplomas, application forms, store catalogues, magazines, radio/TV guides, advertisements, posters, travel guides, cookbooks, repair manuals, memos, time schedules, street signs, syllabi, journal
• Two levels of reading • Strategies for reading comprehension
• A recognition task of perceiving visual signals from the printed page through the eyes • A cognitive task of interpreting the visual information
• • Specifying a purpose for reading Planning what to do/what step to take Reviewing the text Predicting the contents of text Checking predictions Skimming the text for the main idea. Scanning the text for specific information Distinguishing main ideas from supporting details • Posting questions about the text
• • Finding answers to posed questions Connecting text to background knowledge Summarizing information Make inferences Connecting one part of the text to another Paying attention to text structure Rereading
• Guessing the meaning of a new word from context • Using discourse markers to see relationships • Checking comprehension • Identifying difficulties • Taking steps to repair faulty comprehension • Critiquing the author • Judging how well objectives ware met • Reflecting on what has been learned from the text
• Most students think that vocabulary is the main obstacle in learning to read. • Efficient reading begins with a lightening-like automatic recognition of words. • Slowing down and paying attention to recognizing words interferes with the construction of meaning, particularly for beginning readers. • Developing the ability of automatic word recognition is the basis for developing their reading skills. • Sight vocabulary refers towords that one is able to recognize immediately. • Possessing a large sight vocabulary is a necessary but not sufficient condition for effective reading comprehension. • Fluent reading depends on adequate sight vocabulary, a general knowledge about the target language, some knowledge about the topic, wide knowledge about the world and enough knowledge about text type.
• The selected texts and attached tasks should be accessible to the students. • Tasks should be clearly given in advance. • Tasks should be designed to encourage selective and intelligent reading for main meaning rather than test the students’ understanding of trivial details. • Tasks should help develop students’ reading skills rather than test their reading comprehension. • Teachers should help students not merely to cope with one particular text in class, but develop their reading strategies and reading abilities in general. • Teachers should provide enough guidance and assistance at the beginning to help students read and develop reading strategies and finally become independent reads.
• Bottom-up Model • Top-down Model • Interactive-Compensatory Model
• It means that reading starts with understanding the text literally. Teachers teach reading by introducing new vocabulary and new structures first and then going over the text sentence by sentence and last does some reading aloud practice.
• Top-down mode means that in teaching reading, the teacher teaches the background knowledge first, so that students equipped with such knowledge would be able to guess the meaning from the text and decode the text.
• This process involves all kinds of factors which include not only recognizing words and phrases, sentence structures as well as the context, but also the reader’s knowledge of language in general, of the world, and of the text types. During the process of reading all these factors interact with each other and compensate for each other.
• Pre-reading • While-reading • Post-reading
Objectives for pre-reading • To activate necessary background knowledge • To smooth away linguistic difficulty • To facilitate while-reading activities • To create expectation • To arouse the students’ interest in the subject matter of the text
Activities for pre-reading • Predicting • Setting the scene • Skimming • Scanning
While-reading Objectives • • • to know the content of the material to discover structures and patterns to consolidate linguistic items to understand the purpose of writing to train reading skills
While-reading Activities: • Information transfer activities • Reading comprehension questions • Understanding referents • Making inferences
• A transition device : Information presented in plain text form is not facilitative for information retention. When information in text form is transferred to another form such as pictures, drawings, maps, tables, etc. so that the information in the text is visualized, it is easier to comprehend and can be more effectively processed and retained. The way to transfer information from one form to another is called a transition device.
Purposes of transition device. • to focus attention on the main meaning of the text. • to be able to simplify sophisticated input so that it become the basis for output. • to allow students to perform tasks while they are reading • to highlight the main structural organization of a text/part of a text, and show the structure relates to meaning. • to involve all the students in clearly defined reading tasks. • to precede one step at a time. • when a TD is complicated, use it as a basis for further oral and written language practice.
• Question for literal comprehension • Question involving reorganization or reinterpretation • Question for inference • Question for evaluation or appreciation • Question for personal response
Post-reading objectives • To check the fulfillment of reading tasks • To evaluate the application of reading strategies • To apply what has been learned
Post-reading activities • • • Discussion Role-play Gap-filling Retelling False summary Writing
key Pionts • • Characteristics of effective or good readers Strategies for reading comprehension Principles for teaching reading Models for teaching reading Stages activities for teaching reading A transition device Reading conprehension questions