Unit 1 Foundations 8000 BCE to 600 CE

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Unit 1— Foundations 8000 BCE to 600 CE

Unit 1— Foundations 8000 BCE to 600 CE

We begin at about 8, 000 BC when village life began in the New

We begin at about 8, 000 BC when village life began in the New Stone Age. . . Also known as the Neolithic Revolution. NEW STONE AGE

A TOTALLY new way of living: From Hunter-Gatherers to Agriculture

A TOTALLY new way of living: From Hunter-Gatherers to Agriculture

INVENTION OF AGRICULTURE n Mesopotamians first to engage in agriculture n Around 8000 BC

INVENTION OF AGRICULTURE n Mesopotamians first to engage in agriculture n Around 8000 BC n Cereal crops n Wheat n Barley n Herd animals n Sheep n Goats n Woman probably first farmer n Grain-collecting then noticed that stored wild grain could be grown on purpose

Agriculture changed how people lived n Agriculture (Farming) n Growth of Cities n Division

Agriculture changed how people lived n Agriculture (Farming) n Growth of Cities n Division of Labor (Specialization) n Trade n Writing and Mathematics

Human/Environmental interaction Tools and weapons n Social and political organization n Homes n n

Human/Environmental interaction Tools and weapons n Social and political organization n Homes n n n n Lake houses in Switzerland Long houses along Danube Stone huts in Britain Reed lean-tos in Egypt Clay brick huts in Middle East Broad language groups appeared

SOCIAL ORGANIZATION n Originally ruled by council of elders n Authority moved to single

SOCIAL ORGANIZATION n Originally ruled by council of elders n Authority moved to single leader n Close-knit society n Communal granaries, ovens, and fields n Private property limited to personal possessions

POSSESSIONS n Needs of agriculture and stability n Clay pottery n Woven baskets n

POSSESSIONS n Needs of agriculture and stability n Clay pottery n Woven baskets n Woolen and linen clothing n Sophisticated tools and weapons n Plow

RESULTS OF AGRICULTURE n Required intensification of group organization n Neolithic farmers lived in

RESULTS OF AGRICULTURE n Required intensification of group organization n Neolithic farmers lived in settlements n Ranged from 150 (Jarmo) to 2000 (Jericho)

OUTSIDE CONTACTS n Neolithic communities had links n Walls indicate some fearful n Others

OUTSIDE CONTACTS n Neolithic communities had links n Walls indicate some fearful n Others were more peaceful n Obsidian and turquoise in Jericho from several 100’s of miles away n Either gifts or received in trade Jericho

Origins and Spread of Agriculture

Origins and Spread of Agriculture

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-actualization (self-knowledge, fulfillment of personal potential) Esteem (autonomy, achievement, recognition)

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-actualization (self-knowledge, fulfillment of personal potential) Esteem (autonomy, achievement, recognition) Social (belonging, affection) Safety (security, protection from harm) Physiological

Civilization: Whose Definition? 18 th Century European n Civilized vs. primitive n White vs.

Civilization: Whose Definition? 18 th Century European n Civilized vs. primitive n White vs. everyone else n

What does it mean to be civilized? n Historians have determined 6 characteristics of

What does it mean to be civilized? n Historians have determined 6 characteristics of civilization: n Cities n Organized central governments n Complex religions n Social classes n Job specialization and the arts n Writing

Cities n Rivers provided: n n Euphrates Rivers provided challenges: n n n water

Cities n Rivers provided: n n Euphrates Rivers provided challenges: n n n water supply transportation food supply from animals flooding irrigation Required organized, mass labor (corvee) n Construction and repair of canals and irrigation ditches

Organized Central Governments n Central authority needed to control: Labor n Storage of grain

Organized Central Governments n Central authority needed to control: Labor n Storage of grain n Dispersion of foodstuffs among population n Early governments first led by priests n Later controlled by warrior chiefs or kings n

Organized Central Governments n Governments became more complex as new responsibilities arose such as:

Organized Central Governments n Governments became more complex as new responsibilities arose such as: tax collecting n law making n handling public works projects n organizing systems of defense n

Complex Religions n Generally polytheistic Many gods represented natural forces n Others controlled human

Complex Religions n Generally polytheistic Many gods represented natural forces n Others controlled human activities n Priests and worshippers tried to gain gods’ favor through complex rituals and sacrifice n Directed by unquestionable ruling class of priests n King regarded as a god or as a god’s agent n

Complex Religions n Temples often built to honor specific gods and goddesses Egyptian temple

Complex Religions n Temples often built to honor specific gods and goddesses Egyptian temple Mayan temple Mesopotamian ziggurat

Social Classes n People ranked according to their profession Egyptian social structure Chief Priests

Social Classes n People ranked according to their profession Egyptian social structure Chief Priests Nobles Wealthy merchants Artisans Peasants/farmers

Social Classes Priestly class is part of the beginning of social differentiation n Class

Social Classes Priestly class is part of the beginning of social differentiation n Class structure based on specialization of labor n Generated class differences n Priests (“We talk to god, you don’t. ) n Aristocrats/warriors (“We have weapons, you don’t. ”) n Common people (“I guess we work. . . ? ”) n Slaves (“Uh, oh!!!”) n

Job Specialization and the Arts n Artisans specialized in various jobs, such as: Bricklayers

Job Specialization and the Arts n Artisans specialized in various jobs, such as: Bricklayers n Blacksmiths n n n Production of luxuries (Things You Don’t Really Need) Metal technology

Job Specialization and the Arts Created great architecture and art n monumental architecture n

Job Specialization and the Arts Created great architecture and art n monumental architecture n pyramids, ziggurats, big cities n huge temples and associated structures n to fill the needs of a god-oriented state n under the control of the priestly class n

Writing Probably first used by priests n Earliest writing used pictograms n Chinese calligraphy

Writing Probably first used by priests n Earliest writing used pictograms n Chinese calligraphy Egyptian hieroglyphs Mesopotamian cuneiform

Writing Symbols later added to represent words and then sounds n Scribes were specially

Writing Symbols later added to represent words and then sounds n Scribes were specially trained to read, write, and record information n Religion n Trade n Government n n Learning became cumulative

UNIQUENESS OF CIVILIZATION n Civilization was not simply next inevitable step from Neolithic Age

UNIQUENESS OF CIVILIZATION n Civilization was not simply next inevitable step from Neolithic Age n n Many peoples remained at simple foodraising stage for thousands of years— without developing any sort of civilization Only four locations developed civilizations entirely on their own n n China Indus River Valley Mesopotamia/Egypt Central America and Peru

Primary Phase Cultures ca. 3000 -2500 B. C. to about 1800 -1500 B. C.

Primary Phase Cultures ca. 3000 -2500 B. C. to about 1800 -1500 B. C. n Either disappeared or changed by 1500 B. C. n Common characteristics n n Consistent, worldwide

Common Characteristics ? ? n Water!! Deserts of river cultures short on resources n

Common Characteristics ? ? n Water!! Deserts of river cultures short on resources n River Valley Civilizations n Opportunity to adapt environment n Suitable for domesticated plants/animals n Relatively stable (a bit hot) climate n

GEOGRAPHY influenced the development of river valley civilizations.

GEOGRAPHY influenced the development of river valley civilizations.

Early River Valley Civilizations Environment • Flooding of Tigris and Euphrates unpredictable Mesopotamia •

Early River Valley Civilizations Environment • Flooding of Tigris and Euphrates unpredictable Mesopotamia • No natural barriers • Limited natural resources for making tools or buildings • Flooding of the Nile predictable Egypt • Nile an easy transportation link between Egypt’s villages • Deserts were natural barriers • Indus flooding unpredictable Indus River • Monsoon winds Valley • Mountains, deserts were natural barriers • Huang He flooding unpredictable China • Mountains, deserts natural barriers • Geographically isolated from other ancient civilizations Mesoamerica • Mountains and ocean natural barriers • Warm temperatures and moderate rainfall & Andes • Geographically isolated from other ancient civilizations

Mesopotamia – Fertile Crescent n Sumer – The Earliest of the River Valley Civilizations

Mesopotamia – Fertile Crescent n Sumer – The Earliest of the River Valley Civilizations n Sumerian Civilization grew up along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in what is now Kuwait.

Sumerian Writing: cuneiform Cuneiform is created by pressing a pointed stylus into a clay

Sumerian Writing: cuneiform Cuneiform is created by pressing a pointed stylus into a clay tablet.

Sumerians invented: n n n n Brick technology Wheel Base 60 – using the

Sumerians invented: n n n n Brick technology Wheel Base 60 – using the circle. . . 360 degrees Time – 60 minutes in an hour, 60 seconds in a minute 12 month lunar calendar arch ramp ziggurat

Ziggurat – Holy Mountain n Click on the pictures for more information on ziggurats.

Ziggurat – Holy Mountain n Click on the pictures for more information on ziggurats.

Babylon First know written law code n “Rule of Law” n Hammurabi’s Code -

Babylon First know written law code n “Rule of Law” n Hammurabi’s Code - 1792 BC n

EGYPT “The Gift of the Nile” n n Hieroglyphics Pyramids Geometry Advances in medicine

EGYPT “The Gift of the Nile” n n Hieroglyphics Pyramids Geometry Advances in medicine and surgery Nile River Sahara Desert

Indus River Valley 2500 BC – 1500 BC Harappan culture n Well planned cities

Indus River Valley 2500 BC – 1500 BC Harappan culture n Well planned cities n n Grid pattern n Modern plumbing n Built on mud brick platforms n Protected n Larger against seasonal floods cities n Houses n Smaller built of baked brick towns n Houses built of sun-dried mud brick

Aryan Migration § pastoral depended on their cattle § warriors horse-drawn chariots

Aryan Migration § pastoral depended on their cattle § warriors horse-drawn chariots

Varna (Social Hierarchy) Brahmins Kshatriyas Vaishyas Shudras Pariahs [Harijan] Untouchables

Varna (Social Hierarchy) Brahmins Kshatriyas Vaishyas Shudras Pariahs [Harijan] Untouchables

Shang China 1600 BC – 1122 BC n n n Yellow River Valley Bronze,

Shang China 1600 BC – 1122 BC n n n Yellow River Valley Bronze, jade, stone, bone and ceramic artifacts Advanced culture n n n Divinations Religion Astronomy Calendar Art Medicine

Shang China 1600 BC – 1122 BC n Religion n Human as well as

Shang China 1600 BC – 1122 BC n Religion n Human as well as animal sacrifices Regarded their land as only civilized land called it Zhongguo (Middle Kingdom) n Lack of contact with foreigners led to belief in: n n n Strong sense of identity Superiority Center of earth Sole source of civilization

Zhou China 1122 BC – 256 BC n n Bronze, jade, silver, gold Mandate

Zhou China 1122 BC – 256 BC n n Bronze, jade, silver, gold Mandate of Heaven n not Veneration of ancestors n n Power to rule came from heaven Power could be removed if ruler just All must honor family responsibilities Period ended with of Warring States Era

Mesoamerica and Andean South America 2900 BC – 1400 BC n Mesoamerica n n

Mesoamerica and Andean South America 2900 BC – 1400 BC n Mesoamerica n n n Maize, chili peppers, avocados, beans Pottery Stone bowls Beads Waddle and daub structures No draft animals

Mesoamerica and Andean South America 3500 BC – 1400 BC n Andes n n

Mesoamerica and Andean South America 3500 BC – 1400 BC n Andes n n n Textiles technology Sophisticated government Religion Lacked ceramics Largely without art Most impressive achievement was monumental architecture n n Large platform mounds Sunken circular plazas

Civilization n A civilization is built on what is required of men, not on

Civilization n A civilization is built on what is required of men, not on that which is provided for them. n n Antoine De Saint-Exupery 1900 -1944, French Writer Increased means and increased leisure are the two civilizers of man. n Benjamin Disraeli 1804 -1881, British Statesman Prime Minister n To be able to fill leisure intelligently is the last product of civilization. n Toynbee, Arnold 1852 -1883, British Economic Historian and Reformer

Civilization n n n n Cities that served as administrative centers Political system based

Civilization n n n n Cities that served as administrative centers Political system based on control or defined territory rather than on connections of kinship Significant number of people engaged in specialized, non-food-producing activities Status distinctions, usually linked to accumulation of substantial wealth by some groups Monumental building System for keeping permanent records Long distance trade Major advances in science and arts n Richard W. Bulliet

Civilization n "All peoples from small bands of hunters and gatherers to farmers and

Civilization n "All peoples from small bands of hunters and gatherers to farmers and factory workers live in societies. All societies produce cultures: combinations of the ideas, objects, and patterns of behavior that result from human social interaction. But not all societies and cultures generate the surplus production that permits the levels of specialization, scale, and complexity that distinguish civilizations from other social organizations. All people are capable of building civilizations, but many have lacked the resource base, historical circumstance, or, quite simply, the motivation of doing so. “ n Peter Stearns on culture vs. civilization

Classical India

Classical India

Mauryan Empire (320 BCE-320 CE) Chandragupta Unified northern India after Alexander the Great withdrew

Mauryan Empire (320 BCE-320 CE) Chandragupta Unified northern India after Alexander the Great withdrew Set up efficient bureaucracy Asoka (grandson) Dedicated life to Buddha Continued bureaucracy Hospitals, roads

Gupta Empire (320 -647 CE) §Chandra Gupta I §Bureaucracy §Allowed local government in south

Gupta Empire (320 -647 CE) §Chandra Gupta I §Bureaucracy §Allowed local government in south

Social Structure Patriarchal Women were legally minors Women under control of fathers, husbands and

Social Structure Patriarchal Women were legally minors Women under control of fathers, husbands and sons Caste system continued

International Trade Routes

International Trade Routes

Items Traded sp ic es rice & wheat horses ivory & gold ods o

Items Traded sp ic es rice & wheat horses ivory & gold ods o g on cott s k l i s ods o g on t t o c spices gold & ivory

Gupta Art Greatly influenced Southeast Asian art & architecture.

Gupta Art Greatly influenced Southeast Asian art & architecture.

Gupta Achievements 500 healing plants identified 1000 diseases classified Printed medicinal guides Plastic Surgery

Gupta Achievements 500 healing plants identified 1000 diseases classified Printed medicinal guides Plastic Surgery Kalidasa Literature Medicine Inoculations Gupta India C-sections performed Decimal System Mathematics Concept of Zero PI = 3. 1416 Solar Calendar Astronomy The earth is round

Classical China

Classical China

Qin [Ch’in] Dynasty (221 -206 BCE) z Shi Huangdi (221 -206 B. C. E)

Qin [Ch’in] Dynasty (221 -206 BCE) z Shi Huangdi (221 -206 B. C. E) z Legalist rule n Bureaucratic, centralized control n Military expansion n Book burnings --> targeted Confucianists n Buried protestors alive!

Terra Cotta Army Great Wall

Terra Cotta Army Great Wall

Han Dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE) z z z Strong, centralized bureaucracy Roads, canals Emperor

Han Dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE) z z z Strong, centralized bureaucracy Roads, canals Emperor Wu Di (141 -87 BCE) z Public schools z Colonized Manchuria, Korea, & Vietnam z Civil service system

Chang’an The Han Capital

Chang’an The Han Capital

Liu Sheng Tomb (d. 113 BCE) His jade suit has 2498 pieces!

Liu Sheng Tomb (d. 113 BCE) His jade suit has 2498 pieces!

Han Artifacts Imperial Seal Han Ceramic House

Han Artifacts Imperial Seal Han Ceramic House

Han – Roman Empire Connection

Han – Roman Empire Connection

Trade Routes of the Ancient World

Trade Routes of the Ancient World

Classical Greece

Classical Greece

Early History (3000 BCE-750 BCE) n Minoans Crete n Seafaring merchants n Sophisticated civilization

Early History (3000 BCE-750 BCE) n Minoans Crete n Seafaring merchants n Sophisticated civilization n n Hellenes n Merged with native Greeks n Dark Age Homer

Geographic Influence n Mountains n Independent city-states n Insufficient n farmland Founded colonies on

Geographic Influence n Mountains n Independent city-states n Insufficient n farmland Founded colonies on Mediterranean coast n Location n n Peninsula in Mediterranean Exchange of culture/trade n Deep n harbors Numerous good harbors on its irregular coastline

City-States n Athens n Democratic, leading city-state n Sparta n Aristocratic/military city-state n Corinth

City-States n Athens n Democratic, leading city-state n Sparta n Aristocratic/military city-state n Corinth n Trading n United center by language, culture and fear of Persians

Alexander the Great (336 -323 BCE) Taught by Aristotle n Conquered Persian Empire n

Alexander the Great (336 -323 BCE) Taught by Aristotle n Conquered Persian Empire n Created Hellenistic culture n Died suddenly at 33 n

Athenian Contributions Theater, poetry and historical writing n Science and math n Architecture and

Athenian Contributions Theater, poetry and historical writing n Science and math n Architecture and sculpture n Philosophy n n Socrates n n Plato n n Individual Group Aristotle n World

Classical Rome

Classical Rome

Ancient Rome (1500 BCE-500 BCE) n 1500 BC-Latins crossed Alps n Founded Rome n

Ancient Rome (1500 BCE-500 BCE) n 1500 BC-Latins crossed Alps n Founded Rome n Conquered by Etruscans n New Romans n Roads, walls, & buildings n Metal weapons

Republic 500 -27 BCE n n n Social aristocracy n Patricians n Plebeians Senate

Republic 500 -27 BCE n n n Social aristocracy n Patricians n Plebeians Senate Conquered Mediterranean world n Italian Peninsula and west n Client states Spread Greek culture Began to end with assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BCE

Empire 27 BCE-476 CE n Octavian (Augustus) n n Spread Greco-Roman civilization n Law,

Empire 27 BCE-476 CE n Octavian (Augustus) n n Spread Greco-Roman civilization n Law, language, historical writing Trade, industry, science, architecture Diocletian n n Began Pax Romana Divided Empire Constantine n n Reunited empire Converted to Christianity

Germanic Invasion Germans allowed to settle n Huns pushed more Germans in n 476

Germanic Invasion Germans allowed to settle n Huns pushed more Germans in n 476 CE—last Roman emperor n

Classical Mesoamerica

Classical Mesoamerica

Maya (1800 BCE-800 BCE) n n Only known fully developed written language of time/area

Maya (1800 BCE-800 BCE) n n Only known fully developed written language of time/area Art, architecture Writing, math, astronomy, calendar Cultural diffusion across Mesoamerica

Chavin (900 BCE-200 BCE) Pottery n Metalwork (including gold and silver) n Religion promoted

Chavin (900 BCE-200 BCE) Pottery n Metalwork (including gold and silver) n Religion promoted fertility n n Built temples Used hallucinogens Trade

Why civilizations fall n External n War n Natural disaster n Disease n Internal

Why civilizations fall n External n War n Natural disaster n Disease n Internal n Overpopulation n Economic problems n Social disruption n Political struggles

How do civilizations collapse? n n n Population size and density decrease dramatically Society

How do civilizations collapse? n n n Population size and density decrease dramatically Society tends to become less politically centralized Less investment is made in things such as architecture, art, and literature Trade and other economic activities are greatly diminished The flow of information among people slows The ruling elites may change, but usually the working classes tend to remain and provide continuity

Is it possible to prevent collapse? n Every society must: n answer basic biological

Is it possible to prevent collapse? n Every society must: n answer basic biological needs of its members: food, drink, shelter, and medical care. n provide for production and distribution of goods and services (perhaps through division of labor, rules concerning property and trade, or ideas about role of work). n provide for reproduction of new members and consider laws and issues related to reproduction (regulation, marriageable age, number of children, and so on). n provide for training (education, apprenticeship, passing on of values) of individuals so that they can become functioning adults in society. n provide for maintenance of internal and external order (laws, courts, police, wars, diplomacy). Øand. Thuman Bennet n provide meaning and motivation to its members.