- Slides: 27
Unit 1: Chapter 2 THE MUSLIM WORLD EXPANDS 1300 -1700
ISLAM � Founder: � 7 th Muhammad century � Sacred Text: Quran/Koran � God: Allah
IMPORTANT BELIEFS � Five Pillars (duties) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Proclaim belief in one god Prayer: 5 times a day, facing Mecca Charity to poor and aged Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan Hajj-pilgrimage to Mecca
DIVISIONS WITHIN ISLAM � After Muhammad’s death fight over who is Muhammad’s heir as caliph (head of a Muslim state), many murdered including Ali; Muhammad’s son-in-law � Split into Sunni and Shiite � Sunni-believe any devout Muslim could be caliph � Shiite-believe only descendants of Ali can be caliph
EQ: WHAT WERE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MUSLIM EMPIRE ESTABLISHED BY THE OTTOMANS?
RISE OF THE OTTOMANS � 1300 s Byzantine Empire was declining � Most of Anatolia was inhabited by Turks � Many saw themselves as ghazis (warriors for Islam) �Formed military societies under an emir (chief commander) �Followed a strict code of Islamic law � Most successful ghazi- Osman (followers called Ottomans)
PRINT TALK/WALK � Each group will receive one of the prominent rulers of the Ottoman Empire � � � � � Osman Orkhan I Murad II Mehmed II Selim the Grim Suleyman I In your graph organizer note the time period of their reign, their major accomplishments and any fact that you are pretty sure you need to know Raise your hand I will check your organizer; once it is checked- write your information on the paper provided so it can be posted When time to work is up each group will select one person to present their group’s findings.
JOURNAL FOR 9/20 � Using you notes from Monday, � What are the five pillars of Islam?
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HOW DID SULEYMAN’S SELECTION OF A SUCCESSOR EVENTUALLY SPELL DISASTER FOR THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE? � Killed his most able son; exiled another. Selim II inherited the throne � Weak � Most new sultans had their brothers strangled and their sons in the harem- mostly uneducated � Why? Sultans feared anyone taking their power
VOCABULARY PRACTICE-MATCHING a. 1. Sultan 2. Ghazis 3. Devshirme 4. janissaries b. c. d. Elite force of soldiers in the Ottoman Empire; loyal to sultan Warrior for Islam Policy of taking boys from conquered Christian peoples to be trained as Muslim soldiers “overlord” or “one with power”
ANSWER EQ � What were the characteristics of the Muslim Empire established by the Ottomans?
Academic Journal WHAT DO YOU THINK THE PHRASE “CULTURAL BLENDING” MEANS?
EQ: WHAT WERE THE CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BLENDED SAFAVID EMPIRE?
PATTERNS OF CULTURAL BLENDING � Led by cultural change- migration: pursuit of religious freedom or conversion, trade, conquest � Results� Language (ex: Persian and Arabic words used) � Religion and ethical systems � Styles of government � Racial/ethnic blending � Arts and architecture
SAFAVID EMPIRE � Located between the Ottomans, Uzbeks and Mughal Empire � 1499 - 12 yr old ruler, Isma’il, took over “Iran”; done within 2 years � Took Persian title of shah (king) � Est. Shi’a Islam as state religion � Religious tyrant; don’t convert you were put to death � Destroyed Sunni population of Baghdad; Selim the Grim retaliated by executing Shi’a population in Ottoman Empire (up to 40, 000) � Safavid vs Ottoman face off: Battle of Chaldiran 1514 - sets border between Iraq and Iran
CONCEPT WEB: SAFAVID GOLDEN AGE � Shah Abbas (Abbas the Great) 1587 -1629 � Under him the Safavid culture will develop from a blend between Ottoman, Persian, Arab sources New Capital military government religion Reforms Safavid Golden Age Artwork Carpets
DECLINE � Shah Abbas killed/blinded able sons; incompetent rulers followed � 1736: Nadir Shah Afshar expanded to India � Cruel (death penalty if you didn’t pay your taxes; killed 30, 000 citizens in the city of Dehli- present day India) � Assassinated by one of his troops 1747 � Empire fell apart
ANSWER THE EQ: GROUP � What were the cultural characteristics of the blended Safavid Empire?
EQ: HOW DID THE MUGHAL EMPIRE BRING TURKS, PERSIANS AND INDIANS TOGETHER?
RISE OF THE MUGHAL EMPIRE � 1494: Babur inherited a tiny kingdom in present day Uzbekistan and Tajikistan but the elders drove him out � Builds army, swept into India and est. Mughal Empire (no unity in India due to defeated Dehli Sultanate 1398) � Rules from 1526 -1530; then son Humayan ruled: weak, lost territory � When throne he dies his son, Akbar, comes to the
AKBAR’S GOLDEN AGE � � Blended Cultures (Persian, Arabic, Hindi= Urdu) Military conqueror � � � Armies had heavy artillery Appointed some rajputs as officers- made enemies into allies Unified a land of 100 million people King must always be aggressive so his neighbors do not try to conquer him Liberal ruler � � Religious freedom Abolish tax on Hindu pilgrimages and jizya (tax on non-Muslims) � � � Instead a tax on amount of crops yielded Governed through Bureaucracy Anyone could rise to political office
AKBAR’S SUCCESSORS � Son: Jahangir; real ruler wife- Nur Jahan � � Son Khusrau rebelled, allied with Sikhs; leads to Sikhs becoming targets of empire Grandson: Shah Jahan Built Taj Mahal as tomb for wife, Mumtaz Mahal � Famines, overtaxed the people to build monuments and war � � Great-grandson: Aurangzeb (1658 -1707) Expanded empire but weakened it by overtaxing non. Muslims, outlawing “vices”, enforcing Islamic law, destroyed Hindu monuments � Rajputs and Sikhs rebel �
DECLINE � 2 million people died in famine under Aurangzeb � Local lords arose; empire divides � Mughal emperor becomes figurehead � Western traders arrived � 1661 Aurangzeb gave away port of Bombay
DO NOW: COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE POLICIES OF AKBAR AND AURANGZEB � Create a T-chart and compared and contrast Akbar’s polices and Aurangzeb’s policies