UNESCO Learn to learn Learn to be Learn

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學什麼? ─UNESCO聯合國教科文組織─ • • Learn to learn Learn to be Learn to do Learn

學什麼? ─UNESCO聯合國教科文組織─ • • Learn to learn Learn to be Learn to do Learn to live harmoniously 4

學什麼? ─UNESCO聯合國教科文組織─ • • Learn to learn 學所以知 Learn to be 學所以立 Learn to

學什麼? ─UNESCO聯合國教科文組織─ • • Learn to learn 學所以知 Learn to be 學所以立 Learn to do 學所以行 Learn to live harmoniously 學所以群 5

經濟合作發展組織 OECD 教育部長會議 1996 素養 素養 competencies (character) 價值觀 values 態度 attitudes (intellect) 知識

經濟合作發展組織 OECD 教育部長會議 1996 素養 素養 competencies (character) 價值觀 values 態度 attitudes (intellect) 知識 knowledge 技能 skills 7

德 身 智 三大項素養 德性 Character 康健 Health 智識 Intellect 11

德 身 智 三大項素養 德性 Character 康健 Health 智識 Intellect 11

長智識 • 艾德勒 Mortimer J. Adler 1902 -2001 • 主編《新大英百科全書》 (The New Encyclopædia Britannica,

長智識 • 艾德勒 Mortimer J. Adler 1902 -2001 • 主編《新大英百科全書》 (The New Encyclopædia Britannica, 1974) 主編《西方世界钜著》(Great Books of the Western World, 1952, 1990) 提倡「通學方案」(the Paideia Project) 主張研讀各種經典作為終身追求智慧的途徑 • How to Read a Book? 《怎樣讀書?》 • A Guide to Learning《學問指引》 23

Great Books of the Western World 24

Great Books of the Western World 24

長智識四層級 A Guide to Learning《學問指引》 聞見 information 25

長智識四層級 A Guide to Learning《學問指引》 聞見 information 25

知識 knowledge 聞見 information 26

知識 knowledge 聞見 information 26

學問 understanding 知識 knowledge 聞見 information 27

學問 understanding 知識 knowledge 聞見 information 27

智慧 wisdom 學問 understanding 知識 knowledge 聞見 information 28

智慧 wisdom 學問 understanding 知識 knowledge 聞見 information 28

學的途徑 • • • 讀中學 思中學 做中學 玩中學 遊中學 見聞中學 learning by reading learning

學的途徑 • • • 讀中學 思中學 做中學 玩中學 遊中學 見聞中學 learning by reading learning by thinking learning by doing learning by playing learning by traveling learning by seeing/hearing 31

培根 螞蟻 蜘蛛 蜜蜂的譬喻 Francis Bacon Novum Organum, Book I 《新 具》第一卷Aphorism 95 格言

培根 螞蟻 蜘蛛 蜜蜂的譬喻 Francis Bacon Novum Organum, Book I 《新 具》第一卷Aphorism 95 格言 第 95則 39

 • Ants This method was considered to symbolize the human tendency to use

• Ants This method was considered to symbolize the human tendency to use facts without clearly understanding them. Empiricism 经验主义 • Spiders This symbolizes the tendency to formulate ideas and facts by thought alone. Dogmatism 教条主义 • Bees This method “neither relies entirely nor principally on the powers of the mind, nor yet lays up in the memory the matter afforded by the experiments in its raw state, but changes and works it in the understanding. ” Mean between the two, induction 归纳 40

Mortimer J. Adler 論讀書四程度 How to Read a Book • Elementary Reading 粗讀─只求看懂字句 •

Mortimer J. Adler 論讀書四程度 How to Read a Book • Elementary Reading 粗讀─只求看懂字句 • Inspectional Reading 察讀─有系統的檢視 • Analytical Reading 析讀─在分析過程中提出問題與作者對話 • Syntopical Reading 通讀─觸類旁通並歸納出自己的結論 47

Poincaré論為學─如建築 非堆砌 “Science is built up with facts. But a collection of facts is

Poincaré論為學─如建築 非堆砌 “Science is built up with facts. But a collection of facts is no more a science than a heap of stones is a house. ” ─Jules Henri Poincaré(1854 -1912) Science and Hypothesis(1902) 49

Einstein論學說新立─如登山 見更廣 “…creating a new theory is not like destroying an old barn and

Einstein論學說新立─如登山 見更廣 “…creating a new theory is not like destroying an old barn and erecting a skyscraper in its place. It is ratherlike climbing a mountain, gaining new and wider views, discovering unexpected connections between our starting point and its rich environment. But the point from which we started out still exists and can be seen, although it appears smaller and forms a tiny part of our broad view…” ─A. Einstein and L. Infeld The Evolution of Physics 50

學問四部曲 讀 Study 悟 Understanding 55

學問四部曲 讀 Study 悟 Understanding 55

學問四部曲 讀 Study 悟 Understanding 築 Construction 56

學問四部曲 讀 Study 悟 Understanding 築 Construction 56

學問四部曲 讀 悟 築 述 Study Understanding Construction Articulation 57

學問四部曲 讀 悟 築 述 Study Understanding Construction Articulation 57

二十四本歷久不衰的『原點書』 ─看100本暢銷書,不如讀一本經典書 • • The Iliad/ The Odyssey 伊利亞德/奧德賽 Homer Æsop’s Fables 伊索寓言 Æsop

二十四本歷久不衰的『原點書』 ─看100本暢銷書,不如讀一本經典書 • • The Iliad/ The Odyssey 伊利亞德/奧德賽 Homer Æsop’s Fables 伊索寓言 Æsop ~-500 The Republic 理想國 Plato ~-500 Elements of Geometry 形學要旨 Euclid ~-500 The Divine Comedy 神曲 Dante ~ 1300 The Thousand One Nights 天方夜譚 Don Quixote 唐吉訶德 Cervantes 1605/1615 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy 物理的 算學原理 Newton 1678 60

二十四本歷久不衰的『原點書』 ─看100本暢銷書,不如讀一本經典書 • Shakespeare’s Plays 莎士比亞戲劇 Shakespeare ~ 1700 • An Inquiry into the

二十四本歷久不衰的『原點書』 ─看100本暢銷書,不如讀一本經典書 • Shakespeare’s Plays 莎士比亞戲劇 Shakespeare ~ 1700 • An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations 國富論 Smith 1766 • The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire 羅馬帝國 淪亡錄 Gibbon 1778 • Faust 浮士德 Göthe 1808/1832 • The Origin of Species 物種原始 Darwin 1859 • Walden 湖濱散記 Thoreau 1854 • War and Peace 戰爭與和平 Tolstoy 1869 61

知識的分類 ──據 1974 《新大英百科全書.前百科》 The New Encyclopædia Britanica--Propædia Knowledge 知識 Logic 理則學 範言之學 Mathematics

知識的分類 ──據 1974 《新大英百科全書.前百科》 The New Encyclopædia Britanica--Propædia Knowledge 知識 Logic 理則學 範言之學 Mathematics 算學 數與形之學 Humanities and History 人文諸學 Science Philosophy 哲學 科學 驗實明理之學 窮本究原之學 67

Science 科學 驗實明理之學 Natural Sciences 即物窮理諸學 Technological Sciences 致用諸學 Social Sciences 經世諸學 68

Science 科學 驗實明理之學 Natural Sciences 即物窮理諸學 Technological Sciences 致用諸學 Social Sciences 經世諸學 68

人文主義 Humanism 「一種以人的興趣或價值觀為中心的說法、態度 或人生觀;特別是保證人的尊嚴、價值及他經由 理性(通常排除靈異)而自我實現的本領的一種 哲思。」 "A doctrine, attitude, or way of life centered

人文主義 Humanism 「一種以人的興趣或價值觀為中心的說法、態度 或人生觀;特別是保證人的尊嚴、價值及他經由 理性(通常排除靈異)而自我實現的本領的一種 哲思。」 "A doctrine, attitude, or way of life centered on human interests or values; especially a philosophy that assures the dignity and worth of man and his capacity for self realization through reason and often that rejects supernaturalism. ” Webster 81

K. F. von Weizsäcker • “Nature is earlier than man, but man is earlier

K. F. von Weizsäcker • “Nature is earlier than man, but man is earlier than natural science. ” 『天在人之前,人在學之先。』 83