- Slides: 64
Understanding Risk Factors Risk factors are anything that increases the possibility of a collision. 80
Driver-Contributed Factors When driving, you create risk when you • adjust the radio • comb your hair • use a cell phone • eat or drink
Vehicle-Contributed Factors As a driver, it is your responsibility to properly maintain your vehicle. Conditions that can contribute to the possibility of a crash include vehicles with: • bald tires • dirty windshields • broken headlights • worn wiper blades
Roadway- and Environment-Contributed Factors • Conditions such as bright sun, dark shadows, and glare contribute to driving risk. • Road construction, a sharp curve in the road, or ice and snow also create risk for drivers.
The IPDE Process Driving is primarily a thinking task. Drivers who develop an organized system that deals with all traffic possibilities have fewer crashes than drivers who don’t use an organized system. The IPDE Process is an organized system of: • seeing • thinking • responding
You begin the IPDE Process by “reading” traffic situations to gather information in order to make your decision and execute them. To process information properly, you must • identify hazards • predict points of conflict • decide how to avoid the conflict • execute the correct action
Identify 1. The first step of the IPDE Process is identify. 2. You must know when to look, where to look, how to look, and what to look for. 3. The sooner you identify a possible hazard, the more time you will have to react safely. 4. Clues you identify may cause you to change direction or speed, signal others, or perform any combination of maneuvers.
Zone Locations 1. An open zone is space where you can drive without a restriction to your line of sight or to your intended path of travel. 2. Your line of sight is the distance you can see ahead in the direction you are looking. 3. Your intended path of travel is the space your vehicle will occupy. 4. Your path of travel is directed toward the target area. 82
1. The target area is the section of the roadway where the target is located in the center of your intended path, and the area to its right and left. 2. Identify your target area in this traffic scene.
1. A closed zone is a space not open to you because of a restriction in your line of sight or intended path of travel. 2. The sooner you can identify a closed zone, the better chance you have to achieve control of any situation.
Searching Ranges 1. In order to keep alert to the conditions of your zones, you need to evaluate three searching ranges. 83
1. The first searching range is the target-area range, which is the space from your vehicle to the target area. 2. Search this range to detect early any conditions that might affect your intended path of travel.
1. Search the 12– 15 -second range, which is the space you will travel in during the next 12 – 15 seconds. 2. This range is where you need to identify changes in your line of sight or path of travel.
1. The 4– 6 -second range is the space you will travel in during the next 4– 6 seconds. 2. In this range you need to get the final update of how you are controlling your intended path of travel.
Orderly Visual Search Pattern 1. An orderly visual search pattern is a process of searching critical areas in a regular sequence. 2. To use an orderly visual search pattern, look for clues in and around your intended path of travel in a systematic manner. 3. Where would you search in this traffic scene?
1. The area you can see around you while looking straight ahead is your field of vision. 2. Many of us can see an area of about 90 degrees to each side. 3. The area you can see clearly and sharply is seen with your central vision. This is a narrow cone of only up to 10 degrees. 85
1. There are many restrictions to your line of sight such as: 1. curves 2. hills 3. large vehicles 4. weather conditions 5. buildings 6. trees 7. dirty windshields
Selective Seeing 1. Selective seeing means that you identify and select only those clues and events that: 1. restrict your line of sight 2. can change your intended path of travel 2. Develop the technique of selective seeing in your identifying process.
Look for Open Zones 1. Use your visual search pattern to look for specific drivingrelated clues that might cause an open zone to close. 2. What clues do you have that the parked red car might pull out and close your zone? 86
1. Clues you search for will change as you drive in different environments. 2. When driving in the city, search for: 1. intersections 2. parked cars 3. pedestrians 4. traffic
1. On open highways, search much farther ahead for crossroads, slowmoving vehicles, and animals. 2. When you drive on expressways, speeds are higher and scanning all zones becomes even more critical.
1. Regardless of the driving environment, you should always look for other roadway users, roadway features, changing conditions, and traffic controls that may affect your intended path of travel.
Look for Other Users
1. Always be on the lookout for problem drivers.
1. An intersection is a high-risk area where the management of your path of travel needs constant attention.
Change From Multilane to Single Lane 1. Multilane roadways often narrow into single-lane roadways.
Roadway Surface 1. A change in weather may cause dry roadway surfaces to get wet and slippery with rain, snow, or ice as you are driving. 2. A gravel surface can cause sliding or skidding just like a wet or slippery surface. 3. Heavy rain cause dangerous landslides.
Roadside Hazards 1. Good scanning habits will help you identify sudden actions or conflicts such as: 1. bicyclists 2. pedestrians 3. parked vehicles 4. animals 5. shopping center entrances and exits 6. roadside stands and restaurants
Look for Traffic Controls 1. Traffic controls can be in many different places. 2. At major intersections, controls can be overhead, in the center of the road, or on a corner.
Predict 1. When you predict, you take the information you have identified and imagine what might happen. 2. You predict where possible points of conflict may occur. 3. Could you predict a conflict in this situation? 88
1. What might you predict will happen if you were this driver?
Predicting Actions of Others 1. The most important types of predictions to make concerning the actions of others are: 1. Path Where might the other driver go? 2. Action What action will other users take? 3. Space Will I have an open zone? 4. Point of Conflict If all zones are closed, where might a conflict occur?
1. The basic requirement for vehicle control is traction. Traction is the actual gripping power between the tires and the roadway surface. 2. What should the driver predict about stopping distance? What actions should the driver take?
Judgment 1. Making a judgment about a traffic situation involves: 1. measuring 2. comparing 3. evaluating 2. As you drive, you judge: 1. speed 2. time 3. space 4. distance 5. traction 6. visibility
Experience 1. Experience helps you improve your ability to predict accurately. 2. Exposure to a wide variety of driving experiences provides a solid base for making sound judgments later.
lesson 5. 3 1. DECIDE AND EXECUTE 2. Once you have identified a situation and predicted a possible conflict, your next step is to decide. 3. Once you make a decision, the execute step of the IPDE Process will follow. 92
Drivers must continually identify and predict until they have enough information to make correct decisions.
Decide 1. As you follow your intended path of travel, your decision might be to maintain speed, change direction, or communicate. 2. You might decide to use a combination of these actions. 3. Be prepared to rethink your decisions as zones close and greater hazards are presented.
1. The driver of the yellow car decided to accelerate to provide space for the passing driver to return to the right lane. 2. What might have happened if the driver of the yellow car had decided not to accelerate?
Decide to Change Speed 1. Any decision you make will be influenced by the speed of your own vehicle as well as the speed of other vehicles. 2. You can decide to maintain your speed, decelerate, brake, or accelerate. 3. Base your decision about speed control on your evaluation of the situation as well as the possible consequences of your actions.
Decide to Change Direction 1. In order to change your position in the roadway, you will steer to the right or left. 2. A greater change of direction might even be a lane change. 3. You can use an escape path into an open zone to avoid conflict. This area of space all around your vehicle is called a space cushion.
Lane Position 1 1. This is the safest position under normal driving conditions. 93
1. Lane Position 2
1. Lane Position 3
Decide to Communicate 1. The decision to communicate with other users of the roadway helps reduce the possibility of conflict. 2. You can decide to communicate with others by: 1. using lights 2. horn 3. vehicle position 4. eye contact 5. body movement
1. After deciding the best method of communicating, you will execute that action to inform others of your decision. 2. This driver decided to use body movement by waving the driver on the left through the intersection first.
Minimize a Hazard 1. You always want to minimize a hazard, or reduce the possibility of conflict, by deciding to put more distance between yourself and the hazard. 94
Compromise Space 1. Sometimes hazards cannot be minimized or separated. 2. When this occurs, you must decide to compromise space by giving as much space as possible to the greater hazard. 3. The driver of the yellow car is compromising space to give more space to the greater hazard—the truck.
Execute 1. Carrying out your decision in order to avoid conflict is the execute step in the IPDE Process. 2. This step involves the physical skills used in driving. In most cases, you will execute routine actions and maneuvers. 3. More important actions, however, involve timing and placement of your vehicle to avoid conflict. The important actions you will execute are • control speed • steer • communicate
1. When greater deceleration is needed, use firm braking. The amount of braking needed will vary with the situation, the speed of your vehicle, the condition of the roadway, and the condition of your brakes.
1. The driver of the car in this traffic scene is entering the intersection at the same time the white car from the right makes a right turn and enters the driver’s path. 2. The driver avoids locking the brakes so as not to lose steering control.
Steer 1. Steering Too Much When you decide to steer away from a possible conflict, execute just the amount of steering needed. If you turn the steering wheel too much, you can lose control of your vehicle, especially at higher speeds.
1. Too Little Steering Try to steer just enough to avoid a conflict without making jerky or sudden movements. Drivers who keep space cushions around their vehicles usually have an escape path to steer into, thus reducing risk.
Safe Driving Tip 1. Daytime Lights Some cars are equipped with daytimerunning lights. Research shows that your chance of being in a daytime crash is reduced by daytime-running lights or using low-beam headlights all the time.
Communicate 1. Communicate by using the following: 1. headlights, taillights, and brake lights 2. turn-signal lights 3. parking lights and hazard flashers 4. back-up lights 5. horn 6. vehicle position 7. eye contact and body movement
Headlights, Taillights, and Brake Lights 1. Using daytime headlights reduces daytime crashes by improving the visibility of the vehicle. 2. Use headlights during periods of reduced visibility. 3. Your vehicle can be seen more easily if your headlights are on, even during the day.
Turn-Signal Lights 1. Turn them on three to five seconds before making any change in direction.
Back-Up Lights 1. White back-up lights let others know you are backing up. Look for back-up lights on vehicles in parking lots.
Vehicle Position 1. The position of your vehicle in the roadway communicates a message. It indicates to others your intended path of travel.
Eye Contact and Body Movement 1. Try to develop eye contact with other roadway users. Body movements such as a wave of the hand may tell a driver to proceed.
What actions would you take?
Putting IPDE Into Action 1. Use the four steps of the IPDE Process in order. • Identify the hazards. • Predict how they might affect your intended path of travel. • Decide what to do. • Then, execute your maneuvers. 99
1. As you become a more experienced driver, you will learn the more important clues and trouble spots in different areas of the HTS. 2. Can you identify the possible points of conflict in this photograph? What would you decide to do?
1. As you ride with other drivers, practice the I-P-D steps of the IPDE Process. Explain how you would apply I-P-D to this traffic scene. What actions should this driver take?