- Slides: 23
Understanding Aggression Understanding the Multiple Reasons for Aggression Alexandra Debbas
Study Guide n Please Follow Along
Learner Objectives Participants in this seminar will be able to: n n n Identify the seven main reasons for aggression Describe characteristics of each type of aggression Apply an appropriate intervention to each specific type of aggression
Our agenda n n n n Case Study Why understanding aggression is important How to identify aggression What to avoid Types of aggression Appropriate interventions Now what
Glossary n ABC: Antecedent-behavior-consequence: “A direct observation format that organizes events into those that are present or take place immediately before a behavioral event and those that occur immediately afterward” (Kerr & Nelson, 2006, p. 114)
Case Study Andy sits in his algebra class hoping to make it through the period without having the teacher call on him. He has a hard time understanding what the teacher is explaining and currently has a D in the class. While in class, all he can think about is getting out of there without the teacher noticing him. Today Mrs. White decides to pair the students up to work on a particular problem. Andy becomes instantly anxious and blurts out, “That’s a stupid idea!” Mrs. White ignores his remark and starts to pair the students up. When she pairs Andy up with Jason, who is sitting next to him, he angrily pushes Jason out of his seat and yells, “I hate Jason! I won’t be his partner!” Mrs. White instantly sends Andy to the office and informs the principal that Andy was picking on another student and that he acted aggressively out of anger towards the student. The principal assigned Andy two days of detention and informed him that if he does not learn to control his anger there will be worse consequences in the future.
Why it is Important to Understand Aggression § Benefits the student, teacher, and classroom. § Proper identification of triggers leads to the teacher being better equipped to manage the behavior. § Inappropriate reprimands leads to future episodes. § Correct intervention leads to less epoisodes in the future. §(Keller & Tapasak, 2004)
How to Identify the Type of Aggression n Analyze the situation with an “after-the-fact” antecedentbehavior-consequence (ABC). n Describe the aggressive behavior, n Write the date and time n Identify the location and other participants or observers n State who or what the aggression was directed towards and any injury involved n Describe hat happened directly before and after the aggressive act (Kerr & Nelson, 2006)
Cautions n. Do not assume n. Do not ignore
Seven Types of Aggression n n Keller and Tapasak (2004) acknowledge that there are seven different reasons for aggressive behavior in students. The seven categories that they have distinguished are n Prosocial Value Deficits n Prosocial Skill Deficits n Cognitive and Academic Skill Deficits n Arousal-Heightening Interpretations of External Stimuli n Heightened Affective Arousal n Ineffective Communication n Mismanagement of Contingencies
Prosocial Value Deficits § Students are choosing to behave aggressively when they have the skills to control their anger. § Interventions §Prosocial values training strategy §Aggression replacement training (anger control training, prosocial skills training, and parent training) §Keller & Tapasak, 2004
Prosocial Skill Deficits § Students who do not have the skills to control their anger. Some students have never been taught skills to defer their aggression. §Interventions §Directly teach social skills (curricular packages available) §Keller & Tapasak, 2004
Cognitive and Academic Skill Deficits §Academic instruction is beyond the comprehensive level of the student and the academic frustration leads to aggressive behavior (Keller & Tapasak, 2004). §Interventions §Modify instruction, teaching approach, and/or program §Be flexible and creative with the student §Peer/volunteer tutoring (Keller & Tapasak, 2004) §Focus on academic engagements through effective teaching (U. S. Department of Health and Human Service, 2001)
Arousal-Heightening Interpretation of External Stimuli n This is when an “event is accompanied or followed by kinesthetic or other physiological cues that signal anger to the individual” (Keller & Tapasak, 2004, p. 119). The student is not reacting to the stimuli itself, but rather their interpretation of what is taking place. n Interventions n n Anger control training (self instruction and effective coping self statements) (Lochman, 1992) Help students more accurately interpret stimuli (Keller & Tapasak, 2004)
Heightened Affective Arousal n n Students in this category are aggressive because of the stimuli itself and not their interpretation of what is taking place (Keller & Tapasak, 2004). For example, if the teacher asks them to stop talking they will react aggressively because of the request. Interventions n n n Self-relaxation training Model calmness, encourage open-ended questions, and be an active listener Help the student “save-face” (remove spectators and help student back down while still feeling some power) (Keller & Tapasak, 2004)
Ineffective Communication n Students in this category are unable to communicate with others to find a resolution, discuss differences, or even share their feelings (Keller & Tapasak, 2004; Kerr & Nelson, 2006). Language delays and communications problems can lead to aggressive behavior (Sanger, Moore-Brown, Magnuson, & Svoboda, 2001; Sanger, Moore-Brown, Montgomery, Rezac, & Keller, 2003). n Interventions n n Have the students work with a speech/language pathologist to acquire proper language skills (Keller & Tapasak, 2004) Work on problem solving skills, negotiation, and conflict mediation (Elias & Clabby, 1992)
Mismanagement of Contingencies n Keller and Tapasak (2004) explain that aggressive behaviors will continue when the students receive reinforcement. For example, if a student acts aggressively to get out of class and they are sent to the office, they are being reinforced for their aggressive behavior. n Interventions n n n Rearrange contingencies by conducting a functional behavioral assessment Use positive support (Keller & Tapasak, 2004) Token economy, contracting, Good Behavior Game (Kerr & Nelson, 2006)
NOW WHAT n Once you identify the type of aggression, you will be able to adjust the intervention appropriately for the student. n It is important to follow the appropriate interventions in order to produce maximum success for the students.
Case study of Laura n n Please read the case study at the end of your handout and answer the following questions. A discussion will follow.
Where you can get more help §Elias, M. J. , & Clabby, J. F. (1992). Building social problem-solving skills: Guidelines from a school-based program. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. §Keller, H. R. & Tapasak, R. C. (2004). Classroom-based approaches. In A. P. Goldstein & J. C. Conoley (Eds. ), School Violence Intervention: A Practical Handbook, 2 nd Edition (pp. 103 -130). New York: Guilford. §Kerr, M. M. & Nelson, C. M. (2006). Strategies for addressing behavior problems in the classroom, 5 th Edition. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E Merril Publishing Company. §Lochman, J. E. (1992). Cognitive-behavioral intervention with aggressive boys: Three-year follow up and prevention effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 426 -432.
§ Roberto, A. J. , Meyer, G. , Boster, F. J. , & Roberto, H. L. (2003). Adolescents’ decisions about verbal and physical aggression: An application of theory of reasoned action. Human Communication Reseach, 29, 135 -147. § Sanger, D. D. , Moore-Brown, B, Magnuson, G. , & Svoboda, N. (2001). Prevelance of language problems among adolescent delinquents: A closer look. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 23, 17 -26. § Sanger, D. , Moore-Brown, B. J. , Montgomery, J. , Rezac, C. , & Keller, H. (2003). Female incarcerated adolescents with language problems talk about their own communication behaviors and learning. Journal of Communication Disorders, 36, 465 -486. § U. S. Department of Health and Human Service. (2001). Youth violence: A report of the Surgeon General. Retrieved on February 24, 2008, from http: //www. surgeongeneral. gov/library/youthviolence/report. html.
References § Elias, M. J. , & Clabby, J. F. (1992). Building social problem-solving skills: § Guidelines from a school-based program. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Keller, H. R. & Tapasak, R. C. (2004). Classroom-based approaches. In A. P. Goldstein & J. C. Conoley (Eds. ), School Violence Intervention: A Practical Handbook, 2 nd Edition (pp. 103 -130). New York: Guilford. (U. S. Department of Health and Human Service, 2001) § Kerr, M. M. & Nelson, C. M. (2006). Strategies for addressing behavior § § § problems in the classroom, 5 th Edition. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E Merril Publishing Company. Lochman, J. E. (1992). Cognitive-behavioral intervention with aggressive boys: Three-year follow up and prevention effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 426 -432. Sanger, D. D. , Moore-Brown, B, Magnuson, G. , & Svoboda, N. (2001). Prevelance of language problems among adolescent delinquents: A closer look. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 23, 17 -26. Sanger, D. , Moore-Brown, B. J. , Montgomery, J. , Rezac, C. , & Keller, H. (2003). Female incarcerated adolescents with language problems talk about their own communication behaviors and learning. Journal of Communication Disorders, 36, 465 -486.
Contact information Alexandra Debbas n alex 5 [email protected] com n