Uncontrolled copy not subject to amendment Principles of

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Uncontrolled copy not subject to amendment Principles of Flight

Uncontrolled copy not subject to amendment Principles of Flight

Principles of Flight Learning Outcome 5: Be able to apply the principles of flight

Principles of Flight Learning Outcome 5: Be able to apply the principles of flight and control to rotary wing aircraft Part 2

Questions Blade Angle of Attack is between? a. The Chord and Relative Airflow. b.

Questions Blade Angle of Attack is between? a. The Chord and Relative Airflow. b. The Rotational Velocity and the Relative Airflow. c. The Total Reaction and the Chord. d. Lift and Drag.

Questions Increasing speed with a fixed pitch propeller will? a. Be more efficient. b.

Questions Increasing speed with a fixed pitch propeller will? a. Be more efficient. b. Reduce efficiency. c. Make no difference. d. Increase the Engine speed.

Questions The Forces trying to alter the Propeller Blade Angle of Attack are? a.

Questions The Forces trying to alter the Propeller Blade Angle of Attack are? a. ATM and CTM. b. CDM and ATM. c. CTM and REV. d. AOA and ATM.

Questions The Resultant Forces that a Propeller produce are? a. Lift and Thrust. b.

Questions The Resultant Forces that a Propeller produce are? a. Lift and Thrust. b. Thrust and Propeller Rotational Drag. c. Drag and Total Reaction. d. Drag and Thrust.

Helicopters Objectives: 1. State the method of generating Lift for a Helicopter. 2. List

Helicopters Objectives: 1. State the method of generating Lift for a Helicopter. 2. List and Describe the following: • Blades, Rotor Head, Pitch Angle, Collective Pitch, Rotor Disc, Cyclic Pitch, Tail Rotor, Hand Throttle, Torque Reaction. 3. Explain how a Helicopter achieves Horizontal Flight. 4. Describe the Operation of the following Controls: • The Collective. • The Cyclic. • The Yaw Pedals. • The Hand Throttle.

Helicopters How does a Wing produce Lift? Do you remember the Wind-Tunnel?

Helicopters How does a Wing produce Lift? Do you remember the Wind-Tunnel?

Lift A + - B + C Air enters at ‘A’. On reaching ‘B’

Lift A + - B + C Air enters at ‘A’. On reaching ‘B’ it has increased in speed to get through the narrower gap. At ‘C’ the air has returned to the same values as ‘A’. If Speed increases then Pressure Drops & Vice Versa. SO, HOW DOES THIS WORK AS A WING?

Lift LIFT A + - B + A Wing works in the same way

Lift LIFT A + - B + A Wing works in the same way as the “Wind-Tunnel”. Because the air is faster over the top surface, then the pressure is decreased. The Wing is now producing LIFT. C

Helicopters So, instead of moving a Wing through the air, how about we rotate

Helicopters So, instead of moving a Wing through the air, how about we rotate the ‘Wing’! Cross-sectional area of Blade is the same shape as a Wing. The rotating ‘Wing’ is now producing Lift

Helicopters How does a Helicopter Climb and Descend? Lift Chord Relative Airflow Angle of

Helicopters How does a Helicopter Climb and Descend? Lift Chord Relative Airflow Angle of Attack

Helicopters Climbing – How can the ‘Wing’ produce more Lift? Lift Increase Ao. A

Helicopters Climbing – How can the ‘Wing’ produce more Lift? Lift Increase Ao. A Chord Relative Airflow Angle of Attack

Helicopters Descending – How can the ‘Wing’ produce less Lift? Lift Decrease Ao. A

Helicopters Descending – How can the ‘Wing’ produce less Lift? Lift Decrease Ao. A (Increasing or Decreasing Rotor Speed will also affect Lift Production).

Parts of a Helicopter Blades Tail Rotor Head Rotor Disc

Parts of a Helicopter Blades Tail Rotor Head Rotor Disc

Parts of a Helicopter

Parts of a Helicopter

HELICOPTER CONTROLS 1. The Collective Pitch Lever. 2. The Hand Throttle. 3. The Cyclic

HELICOPTER CONTROLS 1. The Collective Pitch Lever. 2. The Hand Throttle. 3. The Cyclic Pitch Control. 4. The Tail Rotor Control (Yaw Pedals).

HELICOPTER CONTROLS

HELICOPTER CONTROLS

Controls Cyclic

Controls Cyclic

Controls Collective

Controls Collective

Controls Yaw Pedals

Controls Yaw Pedals

Controls Cyclic Collective Yaw Pedals

Controls Cyclic Collective Yaw Pedals

The Hand Throttle The Collective Pitch Lever often contains a Hand Throttle (like on

The Hand Throttle The Collective Pitch Lever often contains a Hand Throttle (like on a motor bike).

The Collective Pitch Lever Rotor Blade All Blades are changed by the same Angle.

The Collective Pitch Lever Rotor Blade All Blades are changed by the same Angle.

THE COLLECTIVE PITCH LEVER

THE COLLECTIVE PITCH LEVER

Torque Reaction - Yaw Fuselage Torque Reaction What can be done to stop this?

Torque Reaction - Yaw Fuselage Torque Reaction What can be done to stop this?

Torque Reaction - Yaw Airflow Balancing Force A Tail Rotor is added to counter

Torque Reaction - Yaw Airflow Balancing Force A Tail Rotor is added to counter the Torque Reaction. Which Control is used for this?

The Yaw Pedals Moving the Yaw Pedals will alter Blade Pitch equally on all

The Yaw Pedals Moving the Yaw Pedals will alter Blade Pitch equally on all the Tail Rotor Blades Yaw Pedals The Yaw Pedals can also be used to turn (yaw) the Helicopter around the main Rotor.

Tail Rotors

Tail Rotors

Horizontal Flight How does a Helicopter achieve this?

Horizontal Flight How does a Helicopter achieve this?

Horizontal Flight Lift Thrust The ‘Disc’ is tilted, producing a horizontal component of Thrust.

Horizontal Flight Lift Thrust The ‘Disc’ is tilted, producing a horizontal component of Thrust.

Horizontal Flight The Rotor Disc can be tilted forward, back, left, right depending on

Horizontal Flight The Rotor Disc can be tilted forward, back, left, right depending on the position of the Cyclic Control.

Horizontal Flight

Horizontal Flight

Helicopters Objectives: 1. State the method of generating Lift for a Helicopter. 2. List

Helicopters Objectives: 1. State the method of generating Lift for a Helicopter. 2. List and Describe the following: • Blades, Rotor Head, Pitch Angle, Collective Pitch, Rotor Disc, Cyclic Pitch, Tail Rotor, Hand Throttle, Torque Reaction. 3. Explain how a Helicopter achieves Horizontal Flight. 4. Describe the Operation of the following Controls: • The Collective. • The Cyclic. • The Yaw Pedals. • The Hand Throttle.

Questions How does a Helicopter generate Lift? a. Spinning the main rotor faster. b.

Questions How does a Helicopter generate Lift? a. Spinning the main rotor faster. b. Spinning the main rotor slower. c. Increasing the angle of attack of each rotor blade. d. Decreasing the angle of attack of each rotor blade.

Questions When a Helicopter rotor is driven in a circular motion there is an

Questions When a Helicopter rotor is driven in a circular motion there is an opposing force, what is this force called? a. Lift. b. Torque Reaction. c. Lift Reaction. d. Drag.

Questions What is the purpose of a Tail Rotor? a. Counter Torque Reaction. b.

Questions What is the purpose of a Tail Rotor? a. Counter Torque Reaction. b. Reduce Drag. c. Provide Thrust. d. Control the Helicopter in the rolling plane.

Questions What are the 3 controls a Helicopter uses to control the aircraft’s attitude?

Questions What are the 3 controls a Helicopter uses to control the aircraft’s attitude? a. Collective, Cyclic, Yaw Pedals. b. Ailerons, Rudders. c. Cyclic, Elevators, Throttle. d. Yaw Pedals, Fin, Rotor.