- Slides: 33
Umar Al-farooq (RA) The Second Caliph of Islam
• Umar Son of Khattab bin Nafeer and Khanshana bint e Mugheera • Clan of Adi • One of the Educated person of Arab • Accepted Islam in 6 th Year of Nabuwwat
• A brief look at the life of one who spread Islam to the corners of the world. • Umar was one of the Ashara e Mubashara • Hazrat Muhammad ( )ﷺ gave him the title of Al-Farooq
• Saying of Holy Prophet ( )ﷺ • There were to be a prophet after me indeed he would be Umar bin Khattab (RA).
THE GREAT ADMINISTRATOR OF ISLAM Second Khalifa e Rashid
• Abu Bakr the First Caliph lives no more than two years after the death of Muhammad ( )ﷺ. • He nominated Umar (RA) as the second Caliph of Islam • Umar was the best administrator of the state and this was the golden age of Islam
Hazrat Umar(RA)’s Administration 22 nd of Jamadi-uth-Thani 13 Hijri – 26 Dhul Hijjah 23 Hijri
Challenges q. His Own Image q. Super Powers q (Persian Empire & Byzantine Empire (Eastern part of the Roman Empire) q. Famine q. Plague
Basic Principles of Hazrat Umar’s Reign v Self Accountability v No Private Business for Government Officials v. Same LAW for all
• § • • Self Accountability Examples 1. Old Woman 2. Hazrat Umar (RA)’s Son No Private Business for Government Officials Same LAW for all Examples 1. Hazrat Ayaz Bin Ghanam (RA) 2. Amar Bin Aas (RA)’s Son
Important Conquests of Hazrat Umar(RA)’s Reign q. Conquest of Damascus q. Conquest of Saida, Irqah and Beirut (Lebanon today) q. Campaigns in Iraq q. The Conquest of 2/3 of Byzantie q The Battle of Qaadisiyah q. Conquest of the Persian capital q. Conquest of Jerusalem q. The Conquest of Egypt
Comparison with the Caliphate of Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) Hazrat Umar (RA)
Pact in Jerusalem q The inhabitants' life, property and churches were given protection q Islam was not to be forced on them q The inhabitants were to pay the “Jizya" or poll tax q The Greeks were to be turned out of the City
Reforms of Hazrat Umar(RA) during his Administration q"Awliat-i-Umar q. Formal Bayt ul Mal q. Trading Reforms q. Taxes Reforms q. Departments q. Other Institutions q. Agriculture
Provincial Administration q. Division into Provinces. The following were, the provinces and their governors in 23 A. H. , i. e. near the end of Hadrat Umar's Caliphate. 1. Hijaz with Makkah as its capital; Nafi' bin Abu Harith. 2. Syria with Damascus as its capital; Mu'awiyah bin Abu Sufyan. 3. Iran with Basrah as its capital; Abu Musa al-Ash'ari. 4. Iraq with Kufa as its capital; -Mughirah bin Shu'bah. 5. Egypt with Fustat as its capital; Amr bin al-'As. 6. Palestine with Jerusalem as its capital; 'Alqamah bin Majaz. 7. Jazirah (i. e. Mesopotamia) with Hims (Hems) as its controlling capital; Governor -- 'Umair bin Sa'd. 8. The central province of Arabia with Medina as its capital.
Hierarchy of Administration STATE Caliph PROVINCE Governor DISTRICT Wali
Model of Administration Caliph Governor Wali Katib ud Diwan Sahib ul Kharaj Sahib ul Ahdath Sahib Bait ul Mal Qadi
�Katib Chief Secretary. �Katib-ud-Diwan Military Secretary. �Sahib-ul-Kharaj Revenue Collector. �Sahib-ul-Ahdath Police Chief. �Sahib-Bait-ul-Mal, Treasury Officer. �Qadi Chief Judge.
Departments q. Military Department q. Tax Deptartments q. Education Department q. Police Deparmtment q. Financial Department
Military Department q. Different Ranks q. Cantt Areas q. Fixed Salaries q. Check Posts (Conquered Cities) q. Appointment of Head of Military q. Military in Different Cities
Taxes In Hazrat Umar’s Administrtion q. Jizya (Indemnity or Defence Tax) Diwan al Kharaj Non Muslims q(Zakat(Poor Tax) Diwan al-Zakah q. Khiraj(Land Tax); Diwan al Kharaj q. Ushr (Special land Tax);
Taxes In Hazrat Umar’s Administrtion War Booty –Ghanima (Income from the conquered places)-Diwan al-Jund Ushoor 10 percent Resident Non Muslim 5 % Rakaz Tax on Land Mines and Treasure Troves Ushoor & Reekaz (Diwan al Bareed & Diwan al Khatm)
Education Department q. Schools q. Salaries for Teachers q. Educational Developments all over the State
Police Department q. First one to introduce Police Force q. Prison q. Fixed Salaries
Financial Department q. Ghanima q. Bayt ul Maal q. Salaries q. Collection of revenue q. Salaries for Financial Department Employees
Develpoments q. Construction Canals q. Populated Cities q. He was also the first to make use of the whip for corporal punishment and set up a prison. q He introduced a system of collecting direct information concerning the State. q. He established a secret intelligence service. He had wells bored, built houses q. Fixed a daily payment for the destitute among the Christians and the Jews.
Introductions q. Hijri Calendar q. Fixed Salaries for Men involved in voluntary service q. Census system, q Measuring of the land keeping its record q He was first to allow traders of rival countries to enter Muslim territories for the purpose of business. q. Formal Taraweeh Prayers
Shurah (Advisory Council) q Higher Advisory Council q. General Advisory Council q 3 rd Advisory Council Between The Higher & General Advisory Council
Higher Advisory Council q Important Decisions of the State q. Permanent Members Hadrat Uthman, Ali, 'Abdur Rahman bin Auf, Mu'adh bin Jabal, Ubayy bin Ka'b, Zaid bin Thabit, Talha and Zubair (Raziallah Anho). General Advisory Council q. General Matters q. Ansar & Muhajireens The Companions who participated in the battle of Badr were given priority in this "Shura. In this "Shura" were also included the chiefs of various clans and tribes.
3 rd Advisory Council q Ranked between the other two Shuras q. Some selected Companions among the Muhajirin and Ansar q. Matter of Special Interest The Way to call the Shura: As-Salatu Jami'ah, " in the Prophet's Masjid
Saying of Hazrat Muhammad (SAWW) about Hazrat Umar (RA) "Amongst the nations before your time, there have been inspired people (who were not Prophets), and if there is one amongst my Ummah, he is Umar". (Bukhari and Muslim)