- Slides: 17
Types of Phrases
Prepositional Phrases • Includes a preposition, a noun or pronoun called the object of the preposition, and any modifiers • Prepositional phrases always start with a preposition • They can act like an adjective OR an adverb • Adjective prepositional phrases modify a noun • Adverb prepositional phrases modify a verb, adjective, or adverb.
Example Prepositional Phrases 1. Duncan is sitting in his chair eating a bowl of oatmeal. 2. I got the twins ready for bed. 3. In the classic Japanese movie The Seven Samurai, fierce professional warriors save a village from bandits. 4. The small Scandinavian animals in these photographs are called lemmings. 5. Legends say that when lemmings reach the cliffs along the sea, they leap into the water and drown!
Appositive Phrase • An appositive is a noun or pronoun placed next to another noun or pronoun to identify it or explain it. • An appositive phrase consists of the appositive and its modifiers
Appositive Examples 1. We visited Boston Harbor, the site of the Boston Tea Party. 2. Mr. Parker, the basketball coach, yelled at the players. 3. A great speaker, Thomas Paine inspired the colonists to resist the
Participle Phrase • A verb form that is used as an adjective (it modifies nouns/pronouns) • Participle phrases include the participle and all the words related to the participle • Two kinds: • Present Participle: ends in –ing • Past Participle: ends in –ed, -en, -t, -k
Participle Phrase Examples 1. Waving, the campers boarded the bus. (past or present? ) 2. Confused and frightened, they fled into the jungle. (past or present? ) 3. We could hear something moving in the underbrush. (past or present? )
Gerunds • A gerund is a verb form ending in –ing that is used as a noun • It can act like: a subject, a direct object, an indirect object, a predicate nominative, an object of the preposition • A gerund phrase consists of a gerund all the words related to the gerund
Gerunds acting like… • A subject: Exercising regularly is important to your health. • A direct object My brother likes working at the travel agency. • An object of the preposition: Walter Mitty daydreamed of being a courageous pilot. • A predicate nominative: An excellent way to build vocabulary is reading good literature. • An indirect object: He gave studying chemistry all his
Choose a VERB (write it on the red line) 1. Write one sentence using the verb as a VERB 2. Write one sentence using the verb as a PARTICIPLE. 3. Write one sentence using the verb as a GERUND. • On the back, write your name and illustrate ONE of your sentences
Infinitive Phrase • Infinitives = to + verb • Ex: to run, to jump, to sing • Infinitive Phrases: the infinitive and all words related to the infinitive
Infinitive Phrase… continued • Can be used as a Noun • • Ex: To finish homework is our plan. Julia wants to go to the beach with us on Sunday. Mike plans to give homework more attention. Janetta’s plan is to make ten bracelets before Christmas.
Infinitive Phrase… continued • Can be used as an Adjective • Ex: Napoleon’s plan to conquer Europe failed. • Can be used as an Adverb • Ex: Because of his sprained ankle, Chico was unable to play in the game.
HW: On your own write 5 sentences that have the following types of phrases 1. Sentence with a prepositional phrase 2. Sentence with an appositive phrase 3. Sentence with a participial phrase 4. Sentence with an infinitive phrase 5. Sentence with a gerund phrase
Prepositional Phrase? Used as Adj. or Adv? Appositive Phrase? Gerund Phrase? How is it used? Present Participial Phrase? What does it modify? Past Participial Phrase? What does it modify? Infinitive Phrase? How is it used? Each year, thousands of Americans travel (1) to hundreds of vacation spots in the United States and other countries. (2) Anticipating all kinds of weather and activities, many eager travelers pack far too much clothing and equipment. The most effective way to pack is (3) to set out clothes for the trip and then to put half of them back (4) in the closet. Of course, travelers should give particularly careful thought to walking shoes, (5) the most important item of apparel on any sightseeing trip. Experienced travelers pack only two or three changes of casual clothing, even if they plan (6) to be away for some time. (7) Taking out the smallest piece of luggage they own, they study its capacity. It is possible to pack enough clothes for three weeks in small luggage, (8) perhaps a duffel bag or shoulder bag. Passengers can carry such bags onto an airliner and avoid (9) waiting at the baggage claim area. For most people (10) doing a bit of hand laundry every few days is preferable to spending their vacation burdened with heavy suitcases.
1. travel (1) to hundreds of vacation spots in the United States and other countries. 1. Preposition / Adverb 2. Pres. Part. / 2. Anticipating all kinds of weather and activities, many eager Modifies travelers pack travelers 3. way to pack is (3) to set out clothes for the trip 3. Infinitive / N. / Pred. Nom. 4. to put half of them back (4) in the closet. 4. Prep. Ph. / 5. walking shoes, (5) the most important item of apparel on any Adverb sightseeing trip. 5. Appositive / explains shoes 6. if they plan (6) to be away for some time. 6. Infinitive / 7. Taking out the smallest piece of luggage they own, they study N. / D. O. its capacity. 7. Pres. Part. Modifies they 8. small luggage, (8) perhaps a duffel bag or shoulder bag. 8. Appositive / 9. avoid (9) waiting at the baggage claim area. luggage 9. Gerund 10. For most people (10) doing a bit of hand laundry every few Direct Object days is preferable 10. Gerund / Subject