Tundra Biome Lexis Q Taylor A WORLD MAP
Tundra Biome Lexis Q. Taylor A.
WORLD MAP • • Tundra: treeless arctic region , in which the soil is permanently frozen • Located at the top of the world , near the North Pole • Covers only a fifth of the Earth’s surface
ABIOTIC FACTORS • Temperature severely limits the type of species that can live there due to the harsh cold weather • Winds are severely strong making it difficult for large plant species to inhabit. ( only small shrubby plants vegetate the tundra) • Rainfall in the tundra on average is only 6 -10 in. This also effects the vegetation growing • Permafrost/ soil: layer of soil permanently frozen , if the permafrost melts it alters the temperature and threatens the species living. There’s a top soil that is active and thaws in summer. Provides vegetation. • Nutrients like phosphorous and nitrogen are the major nutrients. The nutrients are cycled and distributed through the plants and animals , eventually returning to the soil
BIOTIC • Tundra plants adapt to the strong winds and soil disturbances. They group together and reduce there growth , making food sparse • Polar bears have special adaptions to help them hunt (endurance to swim for prey , 4 in. layer of blubber , ability to close there nose) • Musk Ox have two coats to protect them from the wind and snow. Also have broad hooves so they don’t sink in the snow • Arctic foxes have the ability to change the color of there coats to camouflage from predators • Penguins have a layer about one in. thick and are well suited to deep dive to help them fish
CLIMATE • Average annual temperature : about 10 - 20 ‘ C Seasonal Temperatures : in the winter the average temperature is -34‘ C (-30 ‘ F) while in the summer it’s 3 - 12 ‘ C ( 37 -54’ F) Precipitation : Rainfall varies within the region but yearly precipitation (including melting snow) is only 610 inches
NET PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY • The Tundra biome has one of the lowest NPP due to the barren landscape caused by the harsh cold temperatures and short growing seasons • Hard for plants and vegetation to grow
SUCCESSION PRIMARY • This was caused when the Earth warmed the glaciers • Glaciers retreated leaving land lifeless and rocky SECONDARY • Fires release carbon into the atmosphere and removes vegetation but vegetation returns after ignite
NUTRIENT FLOW CHART
HABITATS • Polar bear : found in dens near the water and ice flow, so it is closer to its food. The den allows them to go into hibernation • Caribou : they’re migrating species with thick fur, which allows them to move around the vast tundra and adapt to new environments • Arctic fox: live in built dens near a hillside or river , so they have multiple exits to accommodate the number of foxes • Arctic hare : creates home by building a small hole in fresh snow to create warmth • Snowy owl: builds nests up high to have a better view on prey and predators
NICHES • The niche of an arctic hare would be to become prey for larger animals like the snowy owl • The snowy owls niche would be to limit the population of arctic hare and other small rodents • The arctic foxes niche would be to feed polar bears and wolves. They would also limit the population of lemmings • The caribous job would be to limit mosses and grasses and would help feed arctic wolves • The polar bear eats arctic foxes , helping with over population
FOOD WEB Mushrooms Liverworts
PYRAMID OF NUMBERS
TROPHIC LEVELS Trophic Level Where It Gets Food 1 st Trophic Level: Producer Makes its own food 2 nd Trophic Level: Primary Consumer Consumes producers 3 rd Trophic Level: Secondary Consumer Consumes primary consumers 4 th Trophic Level: Tertiary Consumer Consumes secondary consumers
10 ANIMALS/ADAPTATIONS • The Arctic Fox -has short ears and a short, round body with a thick coat to minimize the amount of skin exposed to the frigid air • Arctic Hares- have an all white coat in the winter, and in the summer the coat may change to a blue-gray or graybrown coat. Arctic Hares have large hind feet that enable them to move very quickly across the snow. They also have claws that help them to dig through the snow when looking for mosses or other vegetation to eat. • Snowy Owls- have a thick layer of feathers on their body as well as their feet to enable them to survive in the tundra. • Musk Oxen - have an outer coat made of long, brown hairs and an inner coat called qiviut which consists of wool. This is a special adaptation that helps the musk ox survive the freezing temperatures of the tundra. • Brown bear- during the summer they eat just about anything it can find and then hibernates during the winter. The bear's physical adaptation allows the food eaten during the summer to be stored as a layer of fat underneath its skin. The layer of fat insulates the bear from the cold. While in hibernation the fat is slowly converted into energy that maintains life. • Polar bear - They have long stiff hair in between their feet that provide them traction. This also protects their feet from the cold. They also have hollow fur. Their small rounded ears prevents water from entering the bears ear and protects them from freezing water inside their ear They have a thick layer of fat which keeps them warm in the winters and it is up to 11 cm thick. The skin under fur is black and this is for better heat retention. • Caribou- In the winter the pads of their hoofs shrink and the hair between their toes covers the pads to keep the caribou warm. They are one of the few animals that are adapted to feed on lichens. They have a large stomach that digests lichens. The outside hair is hollow which acts as a insulating layer to conserve body heat and allows them buoyancy when swimming. Their coat fades to light beige as a camouflage against predators.
5 PLANTS/ADAPTATIONS • Arctic Moss- Stores nutrients so new leaves can be made quickly next spring. The more leaves the more they can photosynthesize. It is adapted to winds because it grows near to the ground. Because it can grow under water it is protected from the drying winds and cold, dry air. Moss covers the ground and warms it up allowing other plants to grow. • Arctic Willow- Forms a pesticide to keep insects like the Arctic woolly bear away. It has also adapted to the permafrost by growing a shallow root system. The leaves of the artic willow have also adapted to the cold weather by growing long fuzzy hairs. • Bearberry- bearberry is a low growing plant it can stay out of the wind chill. It's fine silky hairs also help to keep it warm. Leathery leaves are also an adaptation to the cold of the tundra. • Caribou Moss- Have the ability to make food when temperatures are low and light is limited, caribou moss may go into hibernation to reserve limited stored supplies of nutrients and water. Also tough, fibrous tissues that act as rain jackets by sealing out wind, rain and the cold. Caribou moss may come back to life to reproduce and regrow. • Pasque flower- grows low to the ground to keep out of the cold climate. It is also covered in fine silky hairs, which help insulate it.
HUMAN ACTIVITY • There are several threats to the populations of animals that live in the tundra. Mining and oil drilling are increasing habitat loss, as well as human habitations moving farther north. • Global warming could be one of the largest threats to this ecosystem. As global warming melts more of the permafrost soil the very delicate balance of plant and animal life in the tundra is threatened. • The over hunting of endangered species resulted in the eradication of animals such as the musk oxen in the Alaskan tundra. Governments began to recognize the issue and responded by enacting laws to protect the tundra animals. Now musk oxen and caribou numbers are slowly rising again in places such as Canada where they were once close to extinction.
CASE STUDY GOOD • ERI, the tundras management company , they implement policies to help the tundra. • They also regulate rules and update them monthly to attempt to fix issues.
CASE STUDY BAD • During the summer of 2007 lightning strikes sparked 5 tundra fires. This was a record for the fire season. • This is transforming the landscape • Slopes have collapsed due to permafrost melting