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Tucson Botanical Garden Monthly Docent Meeting Phenology and the Tucson Botanical Garden Lori. Anne Barnett Education Coordinator, USA-NPN
Introduction to Phenology What is Phenology?
Introduction to Phenology What is Phenology? http: //climatewisconsin. org/story/phenology
Phenology Observation Program Overview Introduction to Phenology Why do we care? USA National Phenology Network Phenology and Tucson Botanical Garden • Participate! • •
Introduction to Phenology What is phenology? Nature’s calendar The science of the seasons • Blooms and buds • Hibernation, migration, emergence • Easy to observe Who observes phenology? • • • Scientists Gardeners Agriculturists Land managers Youth Famous historical figures
Introduction to Phenology Why does it matter? • Growth rate and range • Animal – plant – climate relationships • Management strategies • Health implications • Agricultural uses Stink bug trap crops (right) adjacent to soybean in October in north Florida Photo courtesy of: Northern Florida Research and Education Center, Mizell, R. F.
Introduction to Phenology HUNTING History and Phenology: Traditions and Culture Fisherman on the east coast of Canada would not fish for shad (Alosa sapisissima) until after the shadbush (Amelanchier spp. ) flowered. Beaubien, E. G. 1991. Phenology of Vascular Plant Flowering in Edmonton and across Alberta. MS thesis, University of Alberta. The Nuu-Chah-Nulth tribe of Vancouver Island used the ripening of salmonberries (Rubus spectabilis) to predict the return of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) to freshwater. Bouchard & Kennedy, 1990. Clayoquot Sound Indian Land Use. Report prepared for Mac. Millan Bloedel Ltd. Peacock, S. L. 1992 Piikani Ethnobotany: Traditional Plant Knowledge of the Piikani Peoples of the Northwest Plains. MS thesis, University of Calgary.
Introduction to Phenology The Tubatulabal tribe of Kern County (CA) used the ripening of coffeeberry fruits (Rhamnus californica) at low elevations to indicate that pinyon pine (Pinus monophylla) seeds in the mountains were ready to harvest. HARVESTING History and Phenology Traditions and Culture: Anderson, M. Kat. 2002. UC Davis.
Introduction to Phenology History and Phenology Traditions and Culture HARVESTING © Phil Dering From: Texas Beyond History By J. Frank Dobie The Magnificent Mesquite by Ken E. Rogers
Introduction to Phenology History and Phenology Record Keeping
Introduction to Phenology Thoreau History and Phenology Research, spring timing and range* • 43 species at Walden Pond bloom 7 days earlier than 150 years ago • Blueberries flower 21 days earlier • 27% of the species are no longer there • Importance of legacy datasets *(Primack and Miller-Rushing, 2012) SPECIES AND ECOSYSTEMS Walden Pond Photo by Scot Miller ARE INFLUENCED BY GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE
Introduction to Phenology History and Phenology Cloned Plants Project • Began in 1950 s by Joe Caprio • Series of lilacs and data at Experimental Ranges across US for improve predictions of crop yield, pest management and bloom dates • Clones minimize variations between locations • Predict the spring index and provide comparable data • Became part of the UW - Milwaukee Indicator Observation Program HISTORIC LILAC NETWORK ESTABLISHED IN THE 1950 S SANTA RITA EXPERIMENTAL RANGE, GREEN VALLEY, AZ S. vulgaris (common lilac), S. x chinensis (Red Rothromagenisis), C. florida (Appalachian Spring Dogwood)
Introduction to Phenology
Phenology Observation Program Overview • Introduction to Phenology ü Why do we care? • USA National Phenology Network • Phenology and Tucson Botanical Garden • Participate!
Why do we care? Phenology and Climate Change EARLIER Research, spring timing and range A three-way mismatch English Oak EARLIER Winter Moth SAME TIME EACH YEAR Pied Flycatcher Both et al. 2006 Nature
Why do we care? Wildfires Diseases – Plant, animal Festivals Pests & Diseases Invasions Ecotourism Allergies Agriculture
Phenological patterns are important, economically and biologically … and sensitive to climate change. “Phenology…is perhaps the simplest process in which to track changes in the ecology of species in response to climate change. ” (IPCC 2007) “Because of their close connection with climate, the timing of phenological events can be accurate indicators of climate change. ” (EPA 2010)
Why do we care? PHENOLOGY (P 12+) Planting and Propagation Pruning Pollinators Pre-emergence herbicides (Pesticides) Pupas Produce harvest Predictive viewing Plant populations Prediction of sunburn Purchase ladybugs. . . ©Pima Master Gardeners
Why do we care? Pollinator Garden Local Questions? Garden Tours Photograph Tomato hornworm ©How Stuff Works ©IFAS Extension
Phenology Observation Program Overview • Introduction to Phenology • Why do we care? ü USA National Phenology Network • Phenology and Tucson Botanical Garden • Participate!
USA National Phenology Network Primary goal To encourage observation of phenological events and understand how plants, animals and landscapes respond to environmental variation and climate change. Mission • Make phenology data, models and related information available to scientists, resource managers and the public. • Encourage people of all ages and backgrounds to observe and record phenology. A NATIONAL NETWORK OF INTEGRATED PHENOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ACROSS SPACE AND TIME.
USA National Phenology Network Tools • Standard methods for data collection • Basic and applied research • Decision-support tools • Education and outreach Nature’s Notebook Legacy Datasets Citizen Science Project
A Multi-taxa, National-scale Phenology System What’s Nature’s Notebook? A national plant and animal phenology observation program. Online monitoring system ∙ ∙ Citizen Science/Scientist contributions Core protocols Dynamic data visualizations Network of partners “HAVING A REASON AND A MECHANISM FOR PAYING ATTENTION TO THE NATURAL WORLD AROUND ME ENRICHES MY LIFE. ” — HANS
Why Citizen Science? What Is Citizen Science? • • Engages volunteers Expands ability of scientists Teaches scientific methods Public and professional scientists Research teams Educate and generate data Meet science & research goals Eliminates gloom and doom Citizen Science Info • www. birds. cornell. edu/citsci/about • www. Cit. Sci. org • www. scistarter. org
USA National Phenology Network 630 plant species and 230 animal species 1815 observers reporting (6201 total) making ~250, 000 observations
USA National Phenology Network Recent and unusual rise in global temperature • Understand plant & animal response • Record early/late spring & fall events • Ecosystem shift
Phenology Observation Program Overview • Introduction to Phenology • Why do we care? • USA National Phenology Network ü Phenology and Tucson Botanical Garden • Participate!
Phenology at TBG Phenology research at the TBG can help us provide area-specific information about bloom times and year to year variations, and accurate species information, and details about pollinator/animal-plant interactions. • Outreach • Education • Expertise
Phenology at TBG
Phenology and TBG Pollinator Garden Phenology Calendar! Garden Tours Photograph Tomato hornworm ©How Stuff Works ©IFAS Extension
Phenology Observation Program Overview • • Introduction to Phenology Why do we care? USA National Phenology Network Phenology and Tucson Botanical Garden ü Participate!
Participate! Know your Native Plants! Jojoba Saguaro Creosote bush Velvet mesquite Honey mesquite Desert ironwood Blue paloverde Yellow paloverde
Participate! Phenophase Definitions What is a phenophase? An observable stage in the annual lifecycle of a plant or animal that can be defined by a start and end point. Often having a duration of a few days or weeks.
Participate! Leaves Flowers Fruits www. usanpn. org/participate/guidelines
Participate! Frequency of Observations • As often as possible • At least once a week • All observations are valuable! Keep looking for a phenophase even if it has ended. Time of Day • Convenient • Consistent • Daytime
Participate! Enter Observations Online www. usanpn. org/participate/guidelines
Participate! www. usanpn. org/participate/guidelines
Participate! www. usanpn. org/participate/guidelines
Participate! Tucson Phenology Trail Currently 7 locations Biosphere 2 UA Campus Sam Hughes Neighborhood Pima Extension Offices (2) Santa Rita Experimental Range • Tucson Audubon Mason Center • Tumamoc Hill • Madera Canyon Total of 75 Miles, start to finish • • • 3 -10 species tagged at each
Participate! Botanical Garden Participants: • Denver Botanic Gardens - Colorado • Highlands Botanical Garden and Biological Station – North Carolina • Jensen-Olsen Arboretum – Juneau, Alaska • Santa Fe Botanical Garden – New Mexico • Desert Botanical Garden – Phoenix, AZ • Ohio State University Phenology Garden Network – Ohio, Kentucky, Minnesota • New York Botanical Garden • Tucson Botanical Garden? What questions could be asked answered by collecting phenology data at TBG?
Phenology Observation Program Collecting systematic information about species life cycles will allow us to build a long term data set. We then may begin to understand how our ecosystems are responding to a changing environment.
Thank you! You’re invited to connect with USA-NPN… • Sign up for a phenology e-newsletter (quarterly) • Join the Nature’s Notebook community and become an observer: Contribute to science while having fun! • Discover new tools and resources for work or play Lori. Anne Barnett [email protected] org @loriannebarnett