Transpiration 1 Definition Transpiration is the evaporation of
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1. Definition • Transpiration is the evaporation of water from the aerial parts of plants. Of all the water plant absorbs, over 95 -99% is transpired to the air as water vapor.
4. From where water is transpired? • Aerial parts of whole young plant • Lenticels (lenticular transpiration) 0. 1% • Cutin (cuticular transpiration) 3%~10% Stomatum (stomatal transpiration) ~ 90%
What is most likely leaving through the stomata of the leaf picture here? • Water (H 2 O) What is this process called? n Stomatal Transpiration
Stomatal transpiration Cuticle Prevents water loss Mesophyll Site of photosynthesis Cuticle Stomata Openings allow gases and water to move in and out of leaf Guard cells Open and close the stomata
Importance of transpiration Guard Cells What goes O 2 out? What process involves Guard Cells using CO 2 and H 2 O releasing O 2 as a waste H 2 O product? • Photosynthesis What goes in? Stoma CO 2 Stoma Open What is the plant using this process to make? Stoma Closed • Carbohydrates-glucose If the plant needs water for photosynthesis, why is water coming out of the stoma?
Function of Stomata • These stomata (leaf openings) naturally allow water to evaporate out. Why would the plant close stomata with guard cells? • Prevent excess water loss through. Stoma transpiration. Open (conserve water) So what is the point of having stomata? • Allows gas exchange for photosynthesis Guard Cells Stoma Closed
Function of Guard Cells How do the guard cells react to the availability of water? ©Dry – guard cells CLOSE ©lots of H 2 O – guard cells OPEN http: //www. ualr. edu/~botany/images. html
4. Guard cells: • cells that open and close the stoma 5. Stomata: openings in leaf’s surface; when open: • • GAS EXCHANGE: Allows CO 2 in & O 2 out of leaf TRANSPIRATION: Guard Cells Stomata
5. Characteristics of guard cells
Guard cell properties and their relationship with stomatal control • Thickness of CW varies in the ventral and dorsal part of the guard cells. • Contains chloroplast and can perform light reaction. (not dark reaction for the lack of key enzymes) • Structurally isolated from epidermal cells for the lack of plasmodesmata (water and ions transmit only through cellular pathway, thus helps to build up water gradient) • Little volume, little amount of water absorption or loss controls stomtal aperture.
6. Mechanism of stomatal opening ----K+ absorption theory HCO 3 -+PEP H+-ATPase in PM is light activated Mal PM Its function is out-pumping H+ Mal－ ＋H+ H＋ light H＋ V K＋ H＋ Cl- Inward rectifier K+ channel is voltage dependent, PM hyperpolarization activates the channel and carry K+ inward Cl- is transported through Cl/H+ symport or Cl-/OH-antiport
When the stomatum is opening, the [K+] rises to 0. 5 M, anions rise to 0. 2 -0. 5 M, the osmotic potential drops 2 MPa, thus bring water in.
7. Factors influencing stomatal aperture • • • Light Temp. CO 2 Water content Plant hormone
(1). Light • Stomata of most plant open in the day and close at night, while CAM plants are just the opposite. • Stomata opening are sensitive to red light and blue light, and blue light is more effective, it stimulates opening by a bluelight receptor: zeaxanthin.
(2) Temperature • Stomatal aperture increase with Temp, within 20 - 30℃ (the optimal).
(3). CO 2 • Low CO 2 conc. promotes stomatal opening, while high CO 2 conc. inhibits stomatal opening through its acidification of the guard cell thus inhibits PM hyperpolarization.
(4) Water content • Stomta open when the leaf contain enough water. When there is a water shortage, they close.
(6) Plant hormones • CTK promotes opening • ABA inhibits
Factors that influence transpiration Transpiration from the leaf depends on two major factors: 1. Difference in water vapor gradient 2. Diffusional resistance
The driving force of transpiration is the “vapor pressure gradient. ” This is the difference in vapor pressure between the internal spaces in the leaf and the atmosphere around the leaf Diffusional resistance comprises stomatal resistance and boundary layer resistance
Transpiration rate=Driving force/resistance water vapor inside the leaf - water vapor of the air = stomatal resistance + boundary layer resistance
Environmental factors that affect the rate of transpiration 1. Light Plants transpire more rapidly in the light than in the dark. This is largely because light stimulates the opening of the stomata , Light also speeds up transpiration by warming the leaf.
2. Temperature Plants transpire more rapidly at higher temperatures because water evaporates more rapidly as the temperature rises. 3. Humidity When the surrounding air is dry, diffusion of water out of the leaf goes on more rapidly.
• 4. Wind When a breeze is present, the humid air is carried away and replaced by drier air. • 5. Soil water A plant cannot continue to transpire rapidly if its water loss is not made up by replacement from the soil. When absorption of water by the roots fails to keep up with the rate of transpiration, loss of turgor occurs, and the stomata close. This immediately reduces the rate of transpiration. If the loss of turgor extends to the rest of the leaf and stem, the plant wilts.
Cells turgid/Stoma open Cells flaccid/Stoma closed Radially oriented cellulose microfibrils Cell wall Vacuole Guard cell Changes in guard cell shape and stomatal opening and closing (surface view)