- Slides: 29
TRANSLATION VS. INTERPRETATION
Translation and Interpretation Terms p Balanced translation - is one that can be considered the middle ground between source and target languages as to the respect of meaning, structure, etc. of both languages. A translator adopts the original text into the target language using the normal word order, grammar and syntax of the target language preserving the meaning of the source language. This is what translators normally try to achieve.
Translation and Interpretation Terms cont. p p Conference interpretation - simultaneous interpreting of a speaker's statements at a conference, symposium or any other large meeting. Consecutive interpretation - one of three modes of interpreting (along with simultaneous and sight interpretation), in which a speaker pauses every few sentences to allow the interpreter to interpret what has just been said.
Translation and Interpretation Terms cont. p p p Court/Legal interpretation - interpreting at legal proceedings, which is performed by a court interpreter who has special subject matter knowledge. Cultural adaptation - adjusting translation to the cultural environment of the target language to make it suitable for the target audience. Freelancer - a self-employed translator or interpreter who works independently directly with the clients and might as well do projects for translation agencies.
Translation and Interpretation Terms cont. p p Guide or escort interpreter - interpreter who accompanies visitors from a particular country abroad or foreign visitors that come to visit a country to ensure that they are able to communicate during their stay. This requires frequent travel and ability to interpret on a variety of subjects both professional and informal. Human translation - translation performed by a real human translator as opposed to translation performed by a machine.
Translation and Interpretation Terms cont. p p p Interpretation, interpreting - the process of facilitating oral communication from one language to another. It is performed by an interpreter. Interpreter - one who renders oral communication from one language into another language. Literal translation - is one that closely matches the wording and structure of the source language. The literal meaning of words is taken as if from the dictionary (out of context), but target language grammar is respected. Literal translation often appears unnatural, hard to read and understand, and therefore should be avoided unless a translator is specifically asked to do a literal translation.
Translation and Interpretation Terms cont. p p p Literary translation - translation of work of literature such as novels, short stories, poetry, etc. Medical interpretation - interpreting in various medical settings such as doctors' offices, hospitals, clinics, rehabilitation centers, etc. This type of interpretation is done by medical interpreters who have special subject matter knowledge. Machine translation - translation performed by computers using various computer programs without a human translator's input in the process. Machine translation cannot be relied upon as its accuracy is very low and the meaning in most cases is distorted.
Translation and Interpretation Terms cont. p p p Native language - it is the first language a person learns and usually is known as a person's "mother tongue". Sight interpretation - one of three modes of interpreting (along with consecutive and simultaneous interpretation), in which an interpreter reads a document written in one language and orally interprets information into another language. Sign language interpreter - interpreter who facilitates communication between people who are deaf or hard of hearing and people who can hear. Sign language interpreter must be fluent in English and Sign Language (SL).
Translation and Interpretation Terms cont. p p p Simultaneous interpretation - one of three modes of interpreting (along with consecutive and sight interpretation), in which an interpreter interprets the message orally at the same time as the speaker is speaking. The interpreter usually sits in a booth and listens through a headset or other equipment. Depending on situation, also known as conference interpreting or whispering. Source language - the language in which text was originally written. Target language - the language into which text is translated.
Translation and Interpretation Terms cont. p A language - Native language Most people have one A language, although someone who was raised bilingual may have two A languages or an A and a B, depending on whether they are truly bilingual or just very fluent in the second language. B language - Fluent language Fluent here means near-native ability - understanding virtually all vocabulary, structure, dialects, cultural influence, etc. A certified translator or interpreter has at least one B language, unless he or she is bilingual with two A languages. C language - Working language Translators and interpreters may have one or more C languages - those which they understand well enough to translate or interpret from but not to.
Translation and Interpretation Terms cont. p p Staff translators - full-time translators working for a specific employer. Telephone interpretation - interpreting a conversation over the phone. Translation, translating - the process of facilitating written communication from one language to another. It is performed by a translator. Translation should almost always be done by a native speaker into his/her own mother tongue. Translator - one who renders written text from one language into another language.
Translation is written - it involves taking a written text (such as a book or an article) and translating it in writing into the target language. Interpretation is oral - it refers to listening to something spoken (a speech or phone conversation) and interpreting it orally into the target language.
Interpreters convert one spoken language into – or, in the case of sign-language interpreters, between spoken communication and sign language. Interpreting requires that one pay attention carefully, understand what is communicated in both languages, and express thoughts and ideas clearly. Strong research and analytical skills, mental dexterity, and an exceptional memory also are important.
There are two modes of interpreting: simultaneous, and consecutive. • Simultaneous (simul) interpreting requires interpreters to listen and speak (or sign) at the same time someone is speaking or signing. Ideally, simultaneous interpreters should be so familiar with a subject that they are able to anticipate the end of the speaker's sentence. Because they need a high degree of concentration, simultaneous interpreters work in pairs, with each interpreting for 20 -minute to 30 minute periods. This type of interpreting is required at international conferences and is sometimes used in the courts. • Consecutive (consec) interpreting begins only after the speaker has verbalized a group of words or sentences. Consecutive interpreters often take notes while listening to the speakers, so they must develop some type of note-taking or shorthand system. This form of interpreting is used most often for person-to-person communication, during which the interpreter is positioned near both parties.
Translators convert written materials from one language into another. They must have excellent writing and analytical ability, and because the translations that they produce must be accurate, they also need good editing skills.
Translating involves more than replacing a word with its equivalent in another language; sentences and ideas must be manipulated to flow with the same coherence as those in the source document so that the translation reads as though it originated in the target language. Translators also must bear in mind any cultural references that may need to be explained to the intended audience, such as colloquialisms, slang, and other expressions that do not translate literally. Some subjects may be more difficult than others to translate because words or passages may have multiple meanings that make several translations possible. Not surprisingly, translated work often goes through multiple revisions before final text is submitted.
Judiciary interpreters and translators facilitate communication for people with limited English proficiency who find it challenging to communicate in a legal setting. Legal translators must be thoroughly familiar with the language and functions of their country’s judicial system, as well as other countries' legal systems. Court interpreters work in a variety of legal settings, such as attorney-client meetings, preliminary hearings, arraignments, depositions, and trials. Success as a court interpreter requires an understanding of both legal terminology and colloquial language. In addition to interpreting what is said, court interpreters also may be required to read written documents aloud in a language other than that in which they were written, a task known as sight translation.
Medical interpreters and translators, sometimes referred to as healthcare interpreters and translators, provide language services to healthcare patients with limited English proficiency. Medical interpreters help patients to communicate with doctors, nurses, and other medical staff. Translators working in this specialty primarily convert patient materials and informational brochures issued by hospitals and medical facilities into the desired language. Interpreters in this field need a strong grasp of medical and colloquial terminology in both languages, along with cultural sensitivity to help the patient receive the information.
Sign-language interpreters facilitate communication between people who are deaf or hard of hearing and people who can hear. Sign-language interpreters must be fluent in English and in Sign Language (SL), which combines signing, finger spelling, and specific body language. Most sign-language interpreters either interpret, aiding communication between English and SL, or transliterate, facilitating communication between English and contact – a form of signing that uses a more English languagebased word order. Some interpreters specialize in oral interpreting for people who are deaf or hard of hearing and lipread instead of sign. Other specialties include tactile signing, which is interpreting for people who are blind as well as deaf by making manual signs into their hands, using cued speech, and signing exact English.
Conference interpreters work at conferences that have non. English-speaking attendees. The work is often in the field of international business or diplomacy, although conference interpreters can interpret for any organization that works with speakers of foreign languages. Employers prefer high-level interpreters who have the ability to translate from at least two languages into one native language - for example, the ability to interpret from Spanish and French into English. For some positions this qualification is mandatory.
Guide or escort interpreters accompany either Ukrainian visitors abroad or foreign visitors in the Ukraine to ensure that they are able to communicate during their stay. These specialists interpret on a variety of subjects, both on an informal basis and on a professional level. Most of their interpreting is consecutive, and work is generally shared by two interpreters when the assignment requires more than an 8 -hour day. Frequent travel, often for days or weeks at a time, is common, and it is an aspect of the job that some find particularly appealing.
Literary translators adapt written literature from one language into another. They may translate any number of documents, including journal articles, books, poetry, and short stories. Literary translation is related to creative writing; literary translators must create a new text in the target language that reproduces the content and style of the original. Whenever possible, literary translators work closely with authors to best capture their intended meanings and literary characteristics.
Localization translators completely adapt a product or service for use in a different language and culture. The goal of these specialists is to make it appear as though a product originated in the country where it will be sold and supported. At its earlier stages, this work dealt primarily with software localization, but the specialty has expanded to include the adaptation of Internet sites, marketing, publications, and products and services in manufacturing and other business sectors.
Not all good interpreters are good translators and vice versa.
Code of Ethics p p Accuracy: Interpreters should accurately and completely transmit the meaning of a message without omitting, deleting or editing, without embellishments or explanations, and with awareness of any cultural differences that might exist between the parties. Confidentiality: Interpreters must protect the privacy of all knowledge and information gained during their course of duty. They should protect the interest of the clients as their own, and they shall not divulge any private information. Interpreters also should not derive personal profit or advantage from any private information that they gained while acting in a professional capacity.
Code of Ethics cont. p p p Unbiasedness/ Impartiality: Interpreters should remain a neutral third party in an interaction and should not be on one side or the other. This also includes eliminating one's own opinions and values from interpreting session. Knowledge: Interpreters should excel in the target language to be able to recreate the message with its original style and meaning, and should have an excellent knowledge of the source language and the subject area, as well as the culture of both worlds. Interpreters must not accept a job for which they are poorly qualified (i. e. lack of knowledge of a particular subject). Education: Interpreters should continuously improve their professional skills and expand their knowledge of both languages including learning any special terminology necessary to perform the assignments.
Code of Ethics cont. p p p Professionalism: Interpreters should behave and present themselves in a professional manner at all times regardless of the familiarity or unfamiliarity with the individuals involved. Interpreters should also not accept assignments for which a conflict of interest may arise. Discretion: Interpreters should make sound judgments in all situations so that no individual is put into jeopardy nor is the professional appropriateness of the interpreter is questioned. Interpreters must also not deceive a client by words, deeds or omissions. Respect: Interpreters should treat all the parties involved in communication in respectful and unprejudicial manner including other colleagues - interpreters.