Transcription Translation Protein Synthesis Protein Synthesis Protein synthesis
- Slides: 18
Transcription, Translation & Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis • Protein synthesis - a cell makes protein based on the message contained within its DNA. • However: – DNA is only found in the nucleus – Proteins are only made outside the nucleus – in the cytoplasm. • RNA – is used to carry these messages.
Ribonucleic Acids (RNA) • There are three types of RNA: 1. m. RNA – carries a message from the DNA to the ribosome 2. t. RNA – transports amino acids to the m. RNA to make a protein 3. r. RNA – make up ribosomes, which make protein.
Ribonucleic Acids (RNA) • RNA is almost exactly like DNA, except: 1. RNA has a sugar ribose DNA has a sugar deoxyribose 2. RNA contains uracil (U) DNA has thymine (T) 3. RNA is single-stranded DNA is double-stranded
Ribonucleic Acids (RNA)
Protein Synthesis • Occurs in TWO steps: 1. Transcription –information from a strand of DNA is copied into a strand of m. RNA 2. Translation – the m. RNA, with the help of the ribosome, forms a chain of amino acids (eventually forming a protein)
The Central Dogma • This order of events is called the central dogma of molecular biology: DNA RNA P R O T E I N
Step One: Transcription 1. DNA unzips 2. Bases pair up: Free bases in the cell find their complementary bases along the new strands. What will be different? ? 3. New backbone formed: What will be different? ?
Step One: Transcription • Watch this simplified animation: – Transcription Animation
Step One: Transcription • Try it! What RNA strand will be made from the following DNA sequence? TACGCATGACTAGCAAGTCTAACT AUGCGUACUGAUCGUUCAGAUUGA
Step Two: Translation 1. Divide the m. RNA sequence into codons. 2. Codons are three-base sections of m. RNA: AUG|CGU|ACU|GAU|CGU|UCA|GAU|UGA
Step Two: Translation • Watch this simplified animation: – Translation Animation
Step Two: Translation 2. You need to figure out what amino acid matches up with each codon: AUG|CGU|ACU|GAU|CGU|UCA|GAU|UGA ?
t. RNA • A go-getter. • Gets the right amino acids to make the right protein according to m. RNA instructions • It contains anti-codons • EX: UAC – m. RNA – AUG – t. RNA
The Genetic Code
Step Two: Translation 2. Since each 3 -letter combination “codes” for an amino acid, you need to figure out what amino acid matches up with each codon: AUG|CGU|ACU|GAU|CGU|UCA|GAU|UGA met arg thr asp arg ser asp ? ? ?
Step Two: Translation 2. Since each 3 -letter combination “codes” for an amino acid, you need to figure out what amino acid matches up with each codon: AUG|CGU|ACU|GAU|CGU|UCA|GAU|UGA met thr asp arg ser asp STOP
RECAP: 1. DNA is transcribed into m. RNA in the nucleus. 2. The m. RNA leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm. 3. The protein is translated from the m. RNA sequence using t. RNA and amino acids.