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TRACE INITIATIVE: Site Supervision and Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI)
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Types of Site Supervision ▷ Supportive supervision visits ▷ Continuous quality improvement visits
Supportive Supervision Objectives 1. Ensure the quality of data and specimens 2. Observe and compare practices with protocols 3. Provide feedback on observations 4. Provide guidelines or technical updates 5. Use data to monitor progress 6. Problem-solve as a team
Supportive Supervision Activities ▷ At each supervisory visit, the Officers will: ○ Complete a brief electronic form, which abstracts data from the Recent Infection Surveillance Register ○ Mentor HTS providers on recency testing and related HTS activities ○ Monitor testing supplies (i. e. test kits, registers) ○ Mentor HTS providers on recordkeeping and data quality ▷ Site supervisors will visit each site at least 1 time per week
Continuous Quality Improvement Objectives 1. Understand level of quality 2. Identify problems and root causes 3. Develop corrective actions with relevant stakeholders 4. Monitor problem-prone aspects 5. Frequently measure changes in quality outcomes and performance
Continuous Quality Improvement Activities ▷ QI visits conducted at least once per month ▷ QI checklists ○ To identify problems/possible solutions ▷ Feedback and coaching ▷ Monitor impact
Stakeholders’ Roles and Responsibilities MOH CDC and USAID Health facilities Owns data, provides technical oversight, provides staff for data collection and testing, and disseminates key findings Provides technical support in design, implementation, analysis and use of findings Specimen collection and transport Implementing partners and TA Support the roll-out and provides TA in implementation Laboratories Specimen receipt, testing, and return of results
Definitions ▷ ▷ Quality Assurance (QA) is a periodic formal assessment to assure and measure the extent that service delivery sites meet minimum standards. Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) is an ongoing, structured process, carried out by sitelevel staff to identify problems in quality care delivery, take remedial actions to achieve improvement, and carry follow-up monitoring to ensure no new problems arise and corrective steps have been effective.
12 Components of M&E Systems Source: World Bank/GAMET
Integrated Cycle for Program Planning 1. 6. Reporting/ Sharing Findings As se ss me nt 2. Str ate Plann gic ing 5. Evaluation / tation n e m ple 4. Im nitoring Mo 3. De sig n
CQI as Part of Planning Performance Act Plan Study Do Source: Turning Point Performance Management Collaborative, From Silos to Systems: Using Performance Management to Improve the Public’s Health , March 2003.
To Carry Out a CQI Process, “Plan. Do-Study-Act” Plan changes aimed at improvement, matched to root causes Do Carry out changes; try first on small scale Study See if you get the desired results Act Make changes based on what you learned; spread success Act Plan Study Do PDSA is the basic structure for most CQI processes
Barriers to Using Data for Program Decision-Making ▷ ▷ ▷ Availability of data Quality of available data Relevance to the population of interest Relevance of data to planning tasks at hand Manner in which data are presented Organizational problems that affect the decision making process
Using Data to Make Program Decisions Easily Step 1 Identify the problem or question you want answered Step 2 What M&E data is needed to answer the question? Step 3 Analyze / examine the data Step 4 Develop a program improvement plan
CONTINOUOUS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
M&E and CQI ▷ M&E = Use of data from multiple sources to support evidence-based decision-making ▷ In order to achieve Continuous Quality Improvement of service performance ○ Areas of Focus ■ Stakeholders ■ Collaboration ■ Systems ■ Change ■ Measurement
Fundamental concept of improvement: “Every system is perfectly designed to achieve exactly the results it achieves”
What is Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI)? ▷ Principles of improvement: ○ Understanding work in terms of processes and systems ○ Developing solutions by teams of providers and patients ○ Focusing on patient needs ○ Testing and measuring effects of changes ○ Peer learning Source: Health. Qual International
What is Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI)? CQI is… ▷ ▷ ▷ an ongoing, structured process; a process involving the identification of service delivery issues, and the implementation of activities aimed at improving quality care delivery and eliminating the challenges identified; and carried out by site-level staff to identify problems, take remedial actions, and carry follow-up monitoring.
FHI QA and QI Guiding Principles
Why is CQI important? CQI aims to: ▷ ▷ ▷ understand the current level of quality of care; identify problems or gaps between actual quality and expected quality for that setting; introduce corrective actions into the care system; monitor high-risk, high-volume, or problemprone aspects of health care; and frequently measure the effect of those changes on health outcomes and system performance.
QA = Root Cause Analysis ▷ QA is a periodic formal assessment to assure and to measure the extent that service delivery sites meet minimum standards.
Overview of QA Methodologies ▷ Site and agency level assessments (i. e. QA, quarterly data completeness checks, routine validations, annual audits) ▷ Participatory method for root cause analysis and corrective action activities
PLAN ACT Either feel confident in data or repeat cycle Assessment/ indicator selection/ Action Plan Development STUDY Monitor implementation, adjust as needed; evaluate change impact DO Implement Action Plan as designed
QA Tools Ø Ø Ø Ø Affinity Diagram Flow Chart Cause and Effect Prioritization Pareto Chart Check Sheet Histogram Scatter Diagram Source: CDC 2012 People Centric / Qualitative (program development opportunities) Data Centric / Quantitative (program implementation/ monitoring opportunities)
QA Tools: Cause and Effect Diagram (Fishbone) Test Location Inconvenient Too Public Not Client Centered Not Offered Counseling Source: CDC 2012 Client Don’t see benefit Don’t Want Test Fearful Poor HIV Testing Not Respectful Poor Experience Staff
QA Tools: Flowchart ▷ Use to check and clarify how processes work ▷ Helps to identify breakdowns and bottlenecks ▷ Examines relationships among process steps in systems Source: CDC 2012 Start Process Step No Decision Yes End
Brainstorm all possible Root Causes of low quality of service delivery Availability of printed forms Low motivation of staff to provide services Lack of on-site supervision on adherence to protocol and guidelines Minimal training on recency testing procedures Percentage of counselors adhering to protocol = 55%
CQI = Action Plan and Follow-Up Measurement ▷ CQI is an ongoing, structured process, carried out by site-level staff to identify problems in quality care delivery and then take remedial actions to achieve improvement and carry follow-up monitoring to ensure no new problems arise and corrective steps have been effective.
Overview of CQI Methodologies ▷ Intervention occurs primarily at the site level ▷ Interventions should be simple, measurable, time constrained and able to complete with available resources ▷ Site level CQI needs regular monitoring and TA from partners and/or MOH ▷ Continuous cycle that requires ongoing assessment, intervention, monitoring ▷ Participatory site-level QI Plan Do Study Act (PDSA) Cycles
SUPPORTIVE SUPERVISION & CQI TOOLS
Supportive Supervision and Quality Improvement Tools ▷ Job aids, SOPs, protocols (standards) ▷ CQI Supervision Checklists ▷ Summary Data Forms and Registers ▷ Action Plans ▷ CQI Prioritization Matrix ▷ PDSA Worksheet
Illustrative Examples of Tools Electronic Tablets Ex: ODK Form to capture Recent Infection Surveillance Register Checklists Ex: Supply checklist, site-level CQI checklist Supervision Visit Log
[Country Team to Insert Group Activity on How to Use CQI Checklist]
Illustrative Examples of CQI Indicators ▷ ▷ ▷ ▷ Percentage of persons aged ≥ 15 years newly diagnosed with HIV-1 infection who have a test for recent infection result of recent infection during the reporting period (MER Indicator HTS_RECENT) Percentage of persons eligible offered recency testing of those eligible for recency testing Percentage of persons incorrectly enrolled (aged <15 years, did not consent, etc. ) Quality of counseling - Percentage of counselors adhering to protocol of those assessed through direct observations Return of Results: Usage of counseling script for return of results by counselors Return of Results - Review of rejection codes to ensure quality of specimens for viral load testing Turnaround time for return of results
How to develop a CQI “Action Plan” ▷ Using the Action Plan Template, record the indicator to improve; the root cause of poor service quality; and activities to help correct the cause of poor performance. ▷ To select the root cause for corrective action, review the Fish Bone Map. Star causes that have 1. ) High impact on service quality and 2. ) Fall under the influence of the health facility team. Avoid causes that are outside of the control of the group. ▷ Be as specific as possible , “delay in turnaround time for results. ”
How to develop a CQI “Action Plan” Define intervention activities that can correct the root causes of poor quality service delivery. Construct activities with SMART characteristics: ▷ ▷ ▷ Specific: Identify who, what, when, where and how activity will be carried out Measurable: Define the intensity, frequency, and duration of activity Appropriate: Select relevant intervention activities that are able to create change and related to the specific issue Realistic: Select intervention activities that are achievable within the scopes of the project/program. Time-bound: Select an activity that can be completed in the cycle timeframe
Example Action Plan Indicator Performance Gap Root Causes Interventions to Address Gaps Increase recognition of good performance during review Low motivation among meetings, with certificates and incentive gifts to star staff to provide services performing sites HTS_RECENT Under testing of eligible persons Lack of on-site supervision on adherence to protocol and guidelines Minimal training on testing procedures Timeline Person Responsible QI Supervisors & MOH QI supervisors review service providers activities on a July - December quarterly basis during 2019 supervision sessions QI Supervisors & MOH, Service Providers QI supervisors will provide onsite training for 1 day, twice a year. MOH will provide 5 day Training-of-Trainers. District Teams
Group Activity: Action Plans Indicator Performance Gap Root Causes Interventions to Address Gaps Timeline Person Responsible
Questions? Comments? 47