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Types of Tourism • Tourism – is any activity where a person voluntarily visits a place away from home and stays there for at least on night.
Types of Tourism There are two main types of tourism: 1. Domestic tourism – where people visit places within their own country. 2. International Tourism - where people visit other countries (go abroad).
Reasons for Tourism • There are many reasons why people might visit a place: – To attend a sporting event e. g. Olympic games, football match – To visit friends/family or to attend an event e. g. weddings – To improve health e. g. visit to a health spa – For business e. g. attend a conference – For prestige – to be able to tell your friend about it
Attractions • The reasons people are attracted to certain places can be split into Physical Attractions and Human Attraction • In the exam you may be given a photograph of a tourist destination and you will have to identify the attractions to that area.
Physical Attractions • • Climate Scenery Waterfalls Beaches Wildlife Mountains Rivers Lakes
Human Attractions • • • Hotels Museums Restaurants Historical buildings Night life Organised activities
How have tourist numbers changed?
Changes in Tourism – How? • More people are travelling • People are travelling further • People are going away for longer • People are taking more holidays • People are taking more shorter breaks • The way people book holidays has changed (increased use of the internet) • Increase in business tourism
Change in Tourism – Why? To help you learn these try remembering this mnemonic of the capitals:
• • More Holidays – people are now entitled to more paid holidays e. g. in the UK by law you are entitled to 4 weeks paid holidays A smaller World – improvements to the transport networks and improved technology mean that it is far easier and quicker to reach destinations all over the world. Development – the tourist industry generates a lot of money. Countries have developed the tourist industries within their countries to provide extra wealth. Elderly population – our populations are becoming older (particularly in MEDCs). The elderly population has more free time and is relatively wealthy therefore take more holidays. Society – our attitudes towards holidays have changed, people today consider holidays essential (they are no longer a luxury that only the rich can afford). Income – We earn more than ever before! This means people have more deposable income (money left over after essentials) and much of this is spent on holidays. Communication – it is easier than ever to book and research holidays than ever before. The internet has played an important role in improving communications.
Rapid growth in tourism
Rapid growth in tourism A 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Describe the changes in car ownership and household income since 1975. Explain how these changes might help to explain the pattern on graph C. State two or more reasons that would help to explain the pattern of graph C. number of cars in the UK (millions) 1950 B 1975 2000 C
Where do people visit? Why did Europe receive the most tourists?
Life Cycle Model
Butler’s model of the evolution of tourism A simplified version of Butler’s model of the evolution of tourism: Do you believe this is true for all holiday destinations?
The evolution of tourism
Costs and Benefits of Tourism Benefits Costs Provides jobs Jobs are often low paid and seasonal Brings in foreign currency Local culture is destroyed Provides wealth that can be invested in services such as health education Fragile ecosystem e. g. sand dunes, are destroyed Preserves local culture New roads, airports and increased traffic cause pollution and environmental damage Environments can be protects e. g. national parks/ nature reserves may be created New facilities are built
Casestudy – Costa del Sol This is your case study of tourism in an MEDC. You may be asked to draw a map.
Map Costa del Sol
Brecon Beacons • Has 7 million tourist a year • Many visit paid attractions such as Dan yr Ogof caves, the Brecon Mountain Railway, Big Pit etc. . • Most of the other users of the park come sightseeing and walking. • Pen y Fan (the highest peak) and the town of Brecon are honey pot sites. • Most visitors to the National Park come from the surrounding area of South Wales and most come for the day or the weekend.
Impacts Attractions Physical Human Scenic landscape e. g. the views from honeypots sites such as Pen y fan give fantastic views. Town of Brecon – hotels, pubs, restaurants. Also hosts a number of festivals. Range of wildlife e. g. Red kite. Historical features such as castles e. g. Carreg Cennen Castle. Landforms such as waterfalls e. g. Henryd waterfall (Bat cave). Wide range of outdoor activities offered e. g. Storey Arms Activity Centre hosts school groups for activities like gorge walking. Caves at Dan yr Ogof caves (largest cave system in Europe) Idyllic looking villages e. g. Crickhowell. Benefits Costs Tourist spend money in the park. The economy of the local area is boosted. Overcrowding in honeypot sites e. g. pen y fan Tourism benefits local businesses such as restaurants, shops and hotels Increased noise pollutions and litter to honey pot sites Many jobs are created e. g. direct jobs in recreational activities like trekking, water sports or climbing Traffic congestions around towns of Brecon and Crickhowell. Local people benefits from using tourist activities Damage to sensitive areas such as Llangorse lake. People benefit from the price of their house rising Local people may not be able to afford the housing. More investment into local amenities, facilities and infrastructure Problem with increases of second homes, means a village can become a ghost town. Conflict between tourists and other users e. g. farmers Footpath erosion can leave scars on the landscape e. g. Pen yr Fan
Sustainable development of the Brecon Beacons
Sustainable development of the Brecon Beacons Transportation • Beacons Bus service is a park and ride scheme , aimed at reducing the number of cars in the park • Eco travel network – is a non profit organisation that offer visitors car rentals in small eco friendly cars e. g. Renault Twizy (electric car) • Bike Bus – bus that offers travel for those wishing to use their bikes in the national Park from Cardiff. Has a trailer to transport bikes. • Brecon beacons national Park website – section on ‘getting around’ encourages environmentally friendly transport.
Sustainable development of the Brecon Beacons Llangorse lake • • Largest lake in South Wales It is a Site of Special Scientific Interest In the 1970 s there was substantial damage to the environment as a result of tourism and this led to a decrease in plant and bird life. Since then the area has had to be managed carefully: – They have zone different areas of the lake, this means that some area will be out of bounds during certain times during the year e. g. nesting season for birds. – So no go areas have been created to protect wildlife. – Some activities have been banned on the lake e. g. water skiing – The number of boats being used on the lake is restricted
Footpath Erosion • One of the biggest pressure on the Brecon Beacons is people walking on paths. • This causes footpath erosion • This is a particular problem at Pen Y Fan. Footpath erosion results in the plants (grass, bracken, gorse) being trampled and the soil being compacted. • As water cannot pass through the soil it runs off the surface washing away any soil. • This leaves a scar on the landscape.
Footpath Erosion – Solutions Put sign posts in to ensure tourist stay on designated paths and don’t get lost Map to ensure tourists stay of designated foot paths Fence off areas so tourist cannot access certain areas Rangers/tourist information centres cant direct tourists away from certain areas Road sign posts can direct traffic to certain areas
Map of the Brecon Beacons
Map of the Brecon Beacons
What are National Parks? National Parks are protected areas of natural beauty. The areas include mountains, moorland, heathland, woodland coasts. National Parks are not theme parks – they are not fenced off and people live and work in them. Snowdonia Exmoor Each National Park is managed by a National Park Authority (NPA), which works to balance the needs of the landscape, the residents and the visitors.
What are the aims of the National Parks? To protect and enhance the natural beauty and wildlife. To promote the understanding and enjoyment of the Parks. To foster the social and economic well-being of the communities living in the National Parks. Can you see how these duties may conflict with one another?
Consequences of tourism
How does footpath erosion occur?
Managing tourism in the Lake District How is tourism managed in the Lake District? separate trails for mountain-bikers improved public transport park-and-ride schemes speed restrictions on the lakes, e. g. 10 mph on Lake Windermere ban of second homes promotion of ‘timeshare’ holiday homes, e. g. Great Langdale holiday homes limited car parking repair of stone walls and eroded footpaths e. g. footpath repair at Dollywagon Pike screening of car parks and industry by planting trees traffic restrictions Select 3 ways of managing tourism in the Lake District and discuss their advantages and disadvantages.
Case study – Kenya This is your case study of tourism in an LEDC. You may be asked to draw a map
Map of Kenya
Label the map of Kenya
What attracts tourists to Kenya? Study the photographs and make a list of reasons why tourists are attracted to Kenya.
Tourism in the Maasai Mara
Tourism in the Maasai Mara
Examination question With reference to an area you have studied in an LEDC, explain the advantages and disadvantages that tourism can bring.
Case study – Eco tourism Costa Rica • Government is encouraging the growth of eco tourism. • These are small scale projects that create money for conservation as well as jobs. • 70% of tourists here have visited protected areas • Earned $1. 25 billion from ecotourism
Tourism Video Click on the link to watch a video on ‘Tourism’ from BBC Bitesize.