- Slides: 19
Tourism “Take only photographs- Leave only footprints”
What is tourism? Tourism is an industry that drives people to travel for recreation and leisure. The growth of tourism has had a dramatic effect on many countries – not just economically, but also environmentally and socially.
Who are tourists? • Tourists are people who travel away from their homes for pleasure. Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world and it generates a lot of jobs. The money spent by tourists adds to the wealth of countries (economic growth). For many years Europe and the USA have had the most tourism but in recent years there has been a lot of tourism development in Asia and the Middle East. • In 2010, a total of 935 million people travelled to another country as tourists. This has increased from just 25 million in 1950.
Why is there more tourism? • • People have greater disposable income. This is money left over once they have paid for essentials. People have more paid holidays. In the UK, the number of weeks we have off work has increased from about two weeks in the 1950 s to four to six weeks now. Travel has become easier and cheaper. More people have cars and our roads and motorways are better quality, making it easier to travel further in less time. Also, flights are cheaper and the internet makes it easy to plan and book a holiday. People are visiting a wider range of places – partly because they have a better knowledge and understanding of places. As well as learning about different places at school, we watch television programmes and browse the internet. This awareness increases people's expectations. There is a greater variety of holidays to choose from. All-inclusive package holidays have become very popular. People have more leisure time. Many countries have invested money in facilities and infrastructure that make it easier for tourists, such as roads, airports and hotels. Ageing populations. People are able to travel in the free time that they have when they retire.
What types of Tourists? • Beach holidays, eg in Spain and the Maldives. People can relax on the beach or take part in water sports. • Outdoor adventure, eg skiing and walking in the European Alps or the Rocky Mountains of North America. • Cultural/historic, eg people like to visit historic sites, art galleries and museums in cities such as Rome and Paris. In cities like New York and London they can go shopping or see shows.
Tourism can provide jobs and improve the wealth of an area. Many developing countries are keen to develop tourism in order to become richer and to improve the quality of life for their people. However, when large numbers of visitors go to one place it is called mass tourism. This can have both positive and negative impacts on the area.
• Tourism can create lots of different types of jobs. Most of these are tertiary jobs. This is because they involve providing a service to other people. • Some countries rely heavily on tourism and this can be a problem if tourists stop coming. Sometimes tourist numbers fall due to natural disasters such as floods or because of war or unrest. For example, some countries suffered from a fall in tourism after the 2004 Asian Tsunami and tourists were encouraged to leave Tunisia and Egypt during protests and unrest in 2011.
Positive effects Jobs created Negative effects Jobs are often seasonal and are poorly paid More money for the country Most money goes out of the area to big companies, not locals Local traditions and customs are kept alive Culture and traditions change as outsiders because tourists enjoy traditional shows, eg arrive Flamenco dancing Money from tourists can be used to protect Damage to the natural environment, eg the natural landscape footpath erosion, litter, habitats destroyed to build hotels New facilities for the tourists also benefit locals, eg new roads Overcrowding and traffic jams Greater demand for local food and crafts Prices increase in local shops as tourists are often more wealthy than the local population
Eco-Tourism • Sustainable tourism provides tourism opportunities for visitors and jobs for locals while protecting the environment and culture from damaging change. This means that in the future, people will continue to enjoy and benefit from them. • A common slogan is "Take only photographs, leave only footprints".
• Ecotourism is a type of sustainable development. The aim of ecotourism is to reduce the impact that tourism has on naturally beautiful environments. • Jungle hut in Ko Pha Ngan, Thailand • Any tourist destination can be harmed by increased tourism. If areas are damaged or destroyed, they will not be available to future generations. • The ecotourism approach includes: • Ensuring that tourism does not exploit the natural environment or local communities. • Consultation with local communities on planned developments. • Making sure that infrastructure improvements benefit local people and not just tourists.
Guidelines for eco-tourists • Ecotourism sets out guidelines for how tourists should behave when visiting fragile environments. These include: • Protect the environment - keep to footpaths, don't leave litter or start fires. • Don't interfere with wildlife - don't scare or feed the animals. • Protect resources - don't take too many showers or use air conditioning. • Support local communities - stay in locally owned accommodation and buy produce from local people. • Eat local food and drink - avoid products that have been imported from. MEDCs. • Respect local customs and traditions - some communities are offended when tourists wear inappropriate clothes in religious places, strip off on the beach or behave in a rowdy manner. Local people appreciate tourists who try to learn the language and show an interest in their culture.
Case Studies • Uluru • The Lake District
• Case study: ecotourism at Uluru • Uluru / Ayers Rock in Australia Uluru (the aboriginal name; also named Ayers Rock in 1873) in Australia is one of the largest rocks (or monoliths) in the world. Until recently large numbers of tourists visited the rock and climbed it using a rope-and-pole path drilled into the side of the rock. As a result the rock was becoming eroded. In 1985 the Australian government handed the land on which Uluru stands back to the Aboriginal inhabitants, the Anangu. The rock has spiritual significance for the Anangu and they do not climb it. The Anangu now ask tourists to respect the rock by not climbing it, and most tourists comply.
Case study: sustainability in the Lake District National Park • Here are some of the measures that have been adopted to help maintain the Lake District for future generations. • The National Trust and other conservation groups have undertaken footpath maintenance. Some paths have been rebuilt or access restricted to reduce the effects on paths and vegetation. • Public transport has been improved and subsidised, for example the 'Langdale Rambler' bus service. Visitors are encouraged to use the buses instead of bringing their cars into the national park. • Restricted parking zones have been set up in some villages, for example in Elterwater. The car park on the edge of the village has been expanded and parking on grass verges and near houses has been restricted. • Raising awareness of conservation issues for visitors with posters and leaflets at tourist information and visitor centres. • A 10 mph speed limit was introduced on Windermere in March 2005. The lake had become congested with powerboats and water skiers, and noise from the speedboats was spoiling the lake for other users such as swimmers and canoeists. There was also concern that the wake from powerboats had caused shore erosion and that boats had contributed to pollution and the disappearance of reed beds in the lake. Conservationists welcomed the new speed limit, but speedboat owners, water skiers, and boat companies around the lake objected to the change. Businesses have been affected and boat users have had to find alternative lakes.
How Could Dubai become more ecotourist friendly?